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TILLO

TILLO (lotini Aurum) Au, elementi khimiyavi az guruhi 1 sistemai davrii Mendeleev: raqami atomi 79, massai atomi 196, 9665. Tillo metalli vaznini rangash zard ast. Yak izotopi sobiti 197Au dorad. 195Au (T1/2 = 185 ruz) va 198Au (T1/2 = 2,686 ruz) izotophoi radioaktivi nisbatan muhimi Tillo meboshand. Tillo avvalin metalli ba odam malum bud. Masnuoti az Tillo sokhtashuda hanuz dar zamoni neolit (hazorai 5—4 to melod) mavjud budand.

tillo

Dar mamlakathoi qadim (Misr, Baynannahrayn, Hinduston, Khitoy (hazorai 3—2 to melod) Tillo istehsol karda, az on har guna asbobhoi oroishi mesokhtand. Alkhimikho Tilloro «shokhi metallho» nomida, ba ramai Oftob ishora kardand; kashfi usulhoi ba Tillo mubaddal kardani metalhoi noasil maqsadi asosii alkhimiya bud. Tillo ba hisobi miyona 4,3- 10-7%-i massai litosferaro tashkil medihad. Dar magma va jinshoi magmavi Tillo parokanda ast, vale az obhoi garm darqishri zamin konhoi gidrotermii on hosil meshavand, ki ahamiyati kaloni sanoati dorand. Dar madanho Tillo asosan dar shakli kholis vomekhurad. Jinshoi kuhi 5•10-7%, obi daryoyu uqyonusho 0,01—0,05 mg/t Tillo dorand. Tillo dar bofta va khuni organizmhoi zinda niz yoft shudaast. Tilloro dar 41 mamlakati jahon istehsol mekunand; zakhirai asosii on dar SSSR, RAJ va Kanada joy giriftaast.
Tillo metalli narm va khede chandir buda, garmi va quvvai elektrro nagz meguzaronad; ba tasiri khimiyavi nihoyat ustuvor ast. Zichiash 19320 ng/m3 (dar 200S), t gud. 1064,430S, ( jush. 29470S; konfigurasiyai elektronhoi qabati berunii atom 5d|06s’ meboshad. Dar payvasthoyash 1 va 3 dar baze payvasthoi kompleksi 2) valenta ast. Tillo bo gayrimetallho (gayr az galogenho) payvast nameshavad; bo galogenho galogenid va dar omekhtai kislotai HN03 va NSI hal shuda kislotai N[AiSI4] hosil mekunad; dar mahlulhoi sianidi natriy KaCN yo kaliy KCN (bo ishtiroki oksigen) Tillo ba sianoaurati (1) natriy 2Na[Au (CN) 2] tabdil meyobad.
Tilloro az qadimulayyom bo usuli gunogun az qabili shustani regi konhoi poshkhurda istehsol mekardand. Solhoi 90-umi asri 19 dar Amerika, Afrika va Avstraliya usuli amalgamasiya va sianidoniro istifoda burdand. Okhiri asri 19— avvali asri 20 Tilloro az konho istehsol mekardagi shudand, yane jinshoi Tillodorro mayda karda, ba mahlulhoi sianidi kaliy yo natriy omekhta mekunand, ki hangomi on Tillo az tasiri sianidho dar shakli namaki kompleksii halshavanda ba mahlul meguzarad. Bad az mahlul onro ba vositai metalli ruh barqaror karda, dar shakli takshon judo mekunand.
Tilloro dar tekhnika dar shakli khula hamrohi digar metallho (masalan, mis, platina va gayra) istifoda mebarand. Mikdori Tilloro dar khulahoyash, ki baroi istehsoli javohirot, tanga, medal, protezi dandon va gayra korfarmuda meshavand, bo mahak (proba) ishora mekunand. Tillo inchunin baroi zarhaldavoni az preparathoi on dar tib hangomi muolijan artrithoi muzmin va tarbod istifoda meshavad; mahlulhoi kalloidii Tilloi radioaktivro dar radioterapiya kor mefarmoyand.
Tillo dar sharoiti istehsoloti moli ekvivalenti kulli hisob meshavad. Tillo chun ekvivalenti kulli arzishi hamai molhoi digarro muayyan namuda, arzipi makhsusi istemoli paydo mekunad va ba pul tabdil meyobad. «Tillo va nuqra az rui tabiati khud pul nestand, vale pul az rui tabiati khud tillo va nuqra meboshad» (Marks K., dar kitobi Marks K. i Engels F» Sochinenie, 2 izdatelstvo, tom 13, soli 137). Dar ibtido Tillo faqat baroi tayyor kardani oroishot istifoda meshud. Bad vositai pasandoz va gun namudann boigari va mubodila gardid. Tilloro hanuz 1500 sol to melod dar Khitoy, Hinduston, Misr, davlathoi Baynannahrayn va dar Yunoni Qadim asri 8—7 to melo ba sifati pul istifoda burdaand. Dar terretoriyai SSSR (dar Armaniston) sikkai tangahoi tilloi ba asri 1 to melo rost meoyad. Vale Tillo dar davrai qadim va asrhoi miyona metalli asosii valyuta nabud. Pulhoi misinu nuqragiro niz istifoda meburdand.
Inkishofi kapitalizm va avji savdoi baynalkhalqi maqomi puli metalliro baland kard. Bo vujudi on dar hamai mamlakatho barobari Tillo puli nuqragin ham dar muomilot bud. Ziyod shudani istehsoli jahonii Tillo va makhsusan az Avstraliya va Afrika ba Evropayu ShMA kashondani on nuqraro bequrb kard va ba monometallizmi tilloi (nigared Standarti tillo) guzashtani aksariyati mamlakatho sharoit faroham ovard. Tillo dar sharoiti istehsoloti molii stikhiyavi munosibati odamonro inikos namuda, az rui khususiyati fitri va naturalii khud maqomi on hamchun munosibati ashyo dar tamomi sohaho baland gardida, fetishizmi tilloyu puliro ba vujud meorad. Hirsi tillogunkuni az had ziyod gardida, odamon ba jinoyathoi mudhish dast mezadand. Nufuzai Tillo makhsusan dar zamoni kapitalizm, ki quvvai korm ba mol tabdil meyobad, baland shud. Dar davrai kapitalizm ba vujud omadani bozori jahoni doirai muomiloti Tilloro vase namuda, onro ba puli jahoni tabdil dod.
Dar davrai krizisi umumii kapitalizm standarti tillo ahamiyati khudro gum kard. Dar natija dar muomiloti dokhilii mamlakathoi kapitalisti puli kogazi mamul gardid, ki ba banknothoi Tillo ivaz nameshud. Sodiroti Tillo va kharidu furushi onro mahdud yo tamoman man kardand. Badi in Tillo chun vosital muomilot va pardokht istifoda nameshud, vale chun andozai yagonai arzish, vositai tashkili khazina va pulhoi jahoni, zaminai asosi sistemai puli va omili tanzimi qatii munosibathoi tarafayni puli va uhdadorihoi mamlakathoi kapitalisti ahamiyati khudro nigoh dosht. Hajmi zakhirahoi Tillo nishonai muhimi ustuvorii valyutai kapitalisti va iktidori iqtlsodii mamlakathoi judogona meboshad (nigared Zakhirai tillo). Holo Tillo baroi istifoda burdan dar sanoat va gunkunii khususi dar bozorhoi makhsusi Tillo kharidu furush meshavad. Az doirai muomiloti bozori ozodi baynidavlati baromadani Tillo sahmi onro dar sistemai valyutai jahoni kapitalisti, pesh az hama, dar zakhirahoi valyutahoi onho kam kard. Dar iqtisodiyoti sosialisti niz Tillo ekvivalenti kulli buda, ba sifati andozai arzish va meyori narkh istifoda meshavad.

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