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BOZII ChAShMBASTA

bozii-chashmbastaBOZII ChAShMBASTA, bozii nodid, yak nav boziest dar shohmot, ki bozigar (ba tanhoi yo yakjo bo raqib) biduni on ki ba takhtai shohmot nigarad, harakati muhrahoro (bo takya bar nerui hofiza) elom medorad. Az afrode, ki bori nakhust bo chashmi basta shohmot bozidaast, Sayyid ibni Jubayd (favt 714) yodovari shudaast. Dar Avrupo Bozii chashmbasta nakhustin bor soli 1265 yodovar meshavad. Alouddin Ali-ash-Shatranji, yake az donishmandon va adiboni darbori Temuri Kuragon (1336-1405), ki dar imperiyai u ustodi benaziri shatranj bud, chashmbasta bo 4 na­far shohmot mebozid. Filidor – ustodi faronsavi (asri 18) bo se nafar, Pol Marfii amrikoi (asri 19) bo 10 na­far ustodoni mumtoz zurozmoi kardaast.

Rekordhoi Bozii chchashmbasta dar asri 20 chandin bor tagyir khurd. Soli 1902 Garri Pilsberi (IMA) dar Maskav dar barobari 22 raqib bo chashmi basta bozi kard, ki in raqobat bo natijai yak bokhtu se musovi va 17 piruzi ba nafi Pils­beri anjom yoft. Pas az 2 sol V. Ostragiskiyi rus bo 23 shohmotboz mahorat sanchid. Hamin tariq, grossmeysterho Reti, Breyer, Alyokhin, Kaltanovskiy va Naydorf didori khamzamon bo chashmi bastaro to 45 takhta bolo burdand. Soli 1960 Yanosh Flesh (Majoriston) bo 52 nafar Bozii chashmbasta orost, ki hama korozmudavu kasbi budand. Flesh tanho dar se didor bokht va dar 18-toi digar ba musovi rasida, 31 boziro burd. Rekordi u to imruz pobarjost.

Adabiyot: Alekhin A. A. Na puti k visshim shakhmatnim dostijeni­yam. Minsk, 1982; Shakhmati. Ensiklopedicheskiy slovar. Moskva, 1990.

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