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SUGDIYON

SUGDIYON, yake az qadimtarin khalqhoi eroninajodi Osiyoi Miyona buda, bayni haporai 1 to melod— asrhoi 8—9 melodi dar Sugd, Bukhoro, Istaravshan va baze digar nohiyahoi Osiyoi Miyona ziqdagoni mekardaand. Sugdiyon az guruhi khalqhoi qadimi sharqi eroni buda, az ajdodi asosii tojikon ba shumor meravand. Sayyohi ChinSyuan-Szan Sugdiyonro mardumi khele bogayrat va jasur donistaast. Ba qavli u sipohiyoni sugdi «base dalerand va hej goh az marg nametarsand; ba hamlai onho yagon dushman tob ovarda nametavonad». Muarrikhoni asrhoi 9—10 (Tabari, Balozuri va digar) niz hangomi tasviri zabtkorihoi arabho dar Osiyoi Miyona Sugdiyonro daleru jangovar ba qalam dodaand. Az rui musavvarahoi rui devorho doir ba navhoi silohi sarbozoni Sugdiyon (akinak, shamsher, tiru kamon, nayzayu gurz, tabarzinu sipar) libosi harbii onho (zirehu toskuloh, javshanu ostincha va gayra) va tarzi istifodaashon tasavvurot paydo shud.

Sugdiyon ba zaboni sugdi gap mezadand. Az rui katibahoi qadima zabonshinoson takhmin mekunand, ki khati Sugdiyon asrhoi 3—2 to melod paydo shudaast. Sugdiyonhoi 1932—33 dar hududi peshinai Sugd, dar qalai Mug (nigared Hujjathoi Qalai Mug) arkhivi Devashtich (avvali asri 8) yoft shud. Arkhiv qarib az 80 hujjati asli iborat buda, dar kogaz, charm va chub navishta shudaast. On na faqat dar tadqiqu tahlili zaboni sugdi va sarfu nahvi on, balki dar tafsiru tashrehi chandin jihathoi tarikhi madaniyati Sugdiyon dar asrhoi 7—8 niz yorii kalon rasond.

Sugdiyon az qadim ba ziroat, bogdori, obchakori va chorvodori shugl doshtand. Dar kashovarzi zaminhoi obi ziyod budand. Bostonshinosoni soveti boqimondahoi inshooti obyorii Sugdiyonro yoftaand, ki onho az darajai balandi taraqqiyoti sistemai obyorii Sugdiyon guvohi medihand.

Sugdiyon konkobon va hunarmandoni mohir niz budand. Onho tillo, nuqra, ohan, qalagi va baze digar navhoi filizotro istikhroj mekardand. Dar istehsoloti hunarmandi khususan peshahoi ohangari, bofandagi, zargari, shishagari, charmgari, kogaztayyorkuni, sangtaroshi va kandakori rivoj yofta budand.

Sugdiyon chun tojironi mohir niz mashhur budand. Tojironi sugdi asrhoi 4—3 to melod bo mamlakathoi Sharq, az jumla Khitoy, robitahoi tijorati doshtand. Onho na faqat dar savdoi bayni nohiyahoi Osiyoi Miyona, balki bayni mamlakathoi Garbu Sharq niz roli miyonaravro mebozidand. Sugdiyon ananahoi boi davlatdori doshtand. Davlati onho dar Osiyoi Miyona yake az avvalin va qadimtarin davlatho bud. Qati nazar az tokhtutoz va zabtkorihoi pay dar pai ajnabiyon (Hakhomanishiniyon, Iskandari Maqduni, Kushoniyon. Haytoliyon, Khoqoni turk va gayra) Sugdiyon ananahoi boi khojagidori, ijtimoi, siyosi va madanii khudro mahfuz doshtaand.

Dar arafai istiloi arab (asri 7) davlati Sugdiyon az ittihodi 2 viloyat, 5 shahr — okrug va 14 rusto (rayon)-i vohahoi daryohoi Zarafshon va Qashqadaryo iborat bud. Dar sari ittihod shoh meistod, ki vay unvoni «ikhshidi Sugd afshini Samarqand»-ro dosht. Hamchun «afshin» u hokimi Samarqand va hamchun «ikhshid» shohi tamomi Sugd hisob meshud. Dar in davra dar jamiyati Sugdiyon munosibathoi feodali rivoj yofta, zamindorii kaloni feodali ba vujud omad.

Dar bayni Sugdiyon sohibmalumotho bisyor budand. Safiri Khitoy Vey- Sze, ki avvali asri 7 ba Samarqand omada bud, oid ba aholii on navishta ast: «Mardumi on jo hama tojironi mohirand; hamin ki bacha panjsola shud, uro khatu savod meomuzonand, khondanro, ki yod girift, vodor mekunand tijorat omuzad». Sugdiyon dar bisyor ilmhoi davrai to istiloi arab ba komyobihoi kalon noil shudaand. Az baze malumoti makhazhoi khatti va bozyofthoi arkheologi malum megardad, ki dar zamoni Sugdiyon matematika, astronomiya, huquqshinosi, tarikh va adabiyot khele rivoj doshtaast. Yake az avvalin asarhoi badeii Sugdiyon dostonhoi asotiriand dar borai Rustam, Barzu, Kovai ohangar va Siyovush barin kahramonhoi khalqi. Az adabiyoti boy va sersohai Sugdiyon to ba zamoni mo, mutaassifona faqat baze porchahoi khurd rasidaand. Agar onhoro bo nazmi asrimiyonagii tojikon muqoisa kunem, malum megardad, ki nazmi tojikon bo ejodiyoti lafzii khalq va adabiyoti khattii badeiisugdiyon bevosita aloqa doshtaast. Sugdiyon majmui qonunhoi khatti doshtand, ki tavassuti on masalahoi murofiai sudiro hal mekardand. Muvofiqi on qonunho ba jinoyatkoron jazohoi sakht doda meshud. Masalan, baroi jinoyati vaznin tamomi avlodi jinoyatkorro ba qatl merasonidand, baroi jinoyati sabuk boshad, khudi gunahgorro mekushtand; baroi duzdi du poi duzdro meburidand. Chunon, ki Syuan-Dzaan qayd mekunad, baroi baze jinoyatho dastoni gunahgorro meburidand yo darra mezadand va yo az shahr badarga mekardand.

Sugdiyon dar memori khishti khom, pokhsa va chubro farovon istifoda mekardand. Memoron usulhoi behtarini devorzaniyu tarhkashiro ba kor meburdand. Baroi oroishi imorat kandakorii rui sant, chub, gil, gach, inchunin naqshu nigorro kor mefarmudand.

Dar bayni Sugdiyon haykaltaroshiyu naqqoshi maqomii baland dosht va in sohahoi hunar dar zaminai ananahoi mahalli inkishof meyoftand. Haykaltaroshon az gil, gaj, chub, ohan va birinji haykalhoi khele zebovu dilkashi odamon, hayvonot va makhluqhoi afsonaviro bo mahorati baland meofaridand. Sanati naqqoshi ham bo rohi tasviri hayoti voqei pesh meraft.

Sugdiyon ba musiqi niz shavqu havasi ziyod doshtand va dar bayni onho nay, daf, ud, chang, barbat, doyra, duyoni barin asbobhoi musiqi khele mamul budaand. Aksari in asbobho namudhoi gunogun doshtaand.

Dini Sugdiyon asosan zardushtiya bud, ammo dar bayni onho monaviya, buddoiya, mazdakiya va baze etiqodoti dini (masalan, parastishi ajdod va gayra) niz mamul bud. Sugdiyon otashparast budand va ba otash sajda mekardand. Onho mayithoi khudro namegurondand, faqat ustukhonhoi az gusht judo kardashudai mayitro ba ustadon andokhta ba novus metuzoshtand.

Sugdiyon madaniyati balande doshtand, va mahz dar zaminai ananahosh chandinasrai khojagiyu madanii Sugdiyon dar ibtidoi asrhoi miyona madaniyati tojikon tashakkul yoft. Nigared niz Sugd.

Adabiyot: Jalilov A., Durdonahoi madaniyati qadima, Dushanbe. 1973. A. Jalilov.

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