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SIYaHChOH

SIYaHChOH, kollapsar, yak obekti khosi (fizikiro guyand, ki dar natijai kollapsi gravitasioni ta- shakkul meyobad. Siyahchohro soli 1939 fiziki amerikoi R. Oppengeymer bo hamkoronash nazariyavi kashf karda bud. On vaqt fizikho donistan mekhostand, ki Oftob va dig. sitoraho in qadar energiyai buzurgro az kujo megirand. In muammoro yak sol pesh (1938) fiziki nemis H. Bete hal karda bud; dar qari sitoraho befosila reaksiyahoi termoyadroi ba amal meoyand (onho otashdonero memonand, ki dar on chor yadroi gidrogen sukhta, yak yadroi geliyro hosil mekunad) va mahz in reaksiyaho dar arzi millionho va hatto milliardho sol sitoragoni nurafkanro bo energiya tamin mekunayad. Chun masalai maakur ravshan shud, savoli nave pesh omad;

siyahchoh

 Vobasta ba massa va baze digar omilhoi hanuz noravshani fiziki tahavvuli minbadai sitora bo se natija anjomida metavonad: sitorai nachandon kalon (massaash az 1,5 massai Oftob beshtarnabuda) bo mururi zamon dar yak holati ustuvor qaror megirad, ki on zinai chahorum va okhirini tahavvuli ust. Sitorai dar in holat budaro rezaspto- rai safed menomand. Onro majozan sitorai murdaistoda nomidan shoyad, zero vay dar nihoyati kor tamoman khunuk shuda, ba rezasitorai «siyoh» tabdil meboad va dar iatija aa nazar goib meshavad. (Pas az 5 mlrd sol taqdiri Oftob aynan hamin khohad bud.) Sitorae, ki massaash ba 1,5—2 massai Oftob barobar ast, dar dami vopasin metarkad va yo boz ham fushurda meshavad. Dar natija vay ba sitorai neytroyai (pulsar)   tabdil mebbad. Sitorae, ki massaash az massai Oftob du marotiba va az in ham besh ast, noguzirona boshast fushurda meshavad va ba Siyahchoh tabdil mebbad, Siyahchlh yak nav guri gravitatsionist, zero har on chize, ki ba doirai tasiri quvvai jozibai on meaftad, dar yak on ba qari u furu meravad va abadi on jo «asir» memonad. Ba in mani Siyahchoh «komi be- tag» khohad dosht. Guzasht az in, hamai chizhoi ba Siyahchoh aftida az aksar khosiyathoi fieikiashon m-ahrum me- shavand. Khudi Siyahchoh boshad, faqat se sifati fiziki doradu bas: masoa, zaryadi elektri la momenti miqdori harakat (har yake az in buzurgihoi fieiki ba qonunhoi baqo itoat mekunad va az in ru khud ba khud gum nameshavad).

  Solhoi okhir dar fiaikai Siyahchoh du kashfiyoti muhim ba amal barovar- da shud: 1) Siyahchoh dar shakli chi obek- ti azimjussai kayhoni Gmassai miyo- naash 102—10 massai Oftob) va chi zarra (massai mibnaash 10 -5 g) vujud doshta metavonad. 2) Hangomi az mavqei nazari mekhanikan kvanti tahqiq kardani masalai ustuvorii vakuumi fiziki dar maydoni joziba malum shud, ki Siyahchoh manbai afkanishoti garmoist. Okhiri ba vositai «tunneli kvanti» berun baromada metavonad, yane az «tagi» gorizonti voqeot (nigared Singulariyat) yak zayl guzashta ba beintihon meravad. Afkanishoti garmoi zimni dar maydoni jozibai Siyahchoh ba vujud omadani juft-juft aarrahoe paydo meshavad, ki khud natijai amali kvantiand. Holo in hodisai favqulodai fiziki asosan dar tarkibi Siyahchohhoi massaashoya qiyosan khurd surat megirad.

                                                                                                        L. Tursunov.

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SARJUMLA

SARJUMLA, qismi asosii predikativii jumlai murakkabi tobe ast, ki mazmunu mohiyati onro dar bar megirad. …