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Panama

Panama (Ranama), Respublikai Panama (Republic of Panama), davlatest dar Amerikai Markazi, dar gardanai Panama. Dar IIIarq va Janubu Sharqi bo Kolumbiya, dar Garb bo Kosta-Rika hamsarhad ast. Az Shimol onro bahri Karib, az Janub uqyonusi rom ihota kardaand. Masohatash 77,08 hazor km2 (bo zonai kanali Panama). Aholiash 1,94 mln nafar 1980). Poytakhtash —shahri Panama. Az jihati mamuri ba 9 muzofot taqsim shuda ast.

Sokhti davlati. Panama— respublika, muvofiqi konstitutsiyam soli 1972 hokimiyati qonunbaror dar ikhtiyori Assambleyai milli meboshad, ki on prezidentro ba muhlati 6 sol intikhob mekunad.

Ba sistemai sudi Sudi oli dar hayati 9 nafar azo, ki onhoro hokimiyati ijroiya tain menamoyad, sardori mekunad.

Tabiat. Panama dar qismi az hama kambari Amerikai Markazi (az 48 to 200 km) joygir ast. Sohilhoi on asosan pastand. Sohilhoi uqyonusi Orom serkhalij va serjaziraand. Nisfi territoriyai Panama pasti buda, bojimondaashro kuhho (balandiashon to 3475 m) ishgol kardaand. Zud-zud zilzila ruy medihad. Iqlimash subekvatori, garm va sernam, harororati miyonai mohona 25—28° S. Borishoti solona 2500—3700 mm. Dar Panama daryoho bisyorand va onho zakhirai kaloni gidroenergetiki dorand, ammo kishtigard nestand.

Aholi. Aholii asosi — panamagiho. Sokinoni mahalli — hindiyon dar sohilhoi shimolu sharqii Panama va jangalhoi nohiyahoi janubu sharqi, inchunin dar nohiyahoi kuhii garbi ba miqdori kam boqi mondaand. Hamchunin khitoiho, grajdaninhoi ShMA va digaron zindagi mekunand. Zaboni rasmi — ispani. Dini hukmron — katoliki, qismi kami oli payravi mazhabi nrotestantist. Shahrhoi kalon: Panama, Kolon.

Ocherki tarikhi. Dar Panama to omadani mustamlikadoroni Ispaniya ziyoda az 60 qabilai hinduyoya zindagi mekard. Panamaro soli 1501 konkistadori ispani Rodrigo de Bastidas kashf kard. X. Kolumb soli 1502 dar rezishgohi daryoi Belen dehai Santa-Mariya-de Belenro bunyod kard, vale dere naguzashta onro hinduyon vayron kardand. Mustamlikadoroni ispani soli 1509 dar sohili khaliji Daryoi koloniyai nav va soli 1519 shahri Panamaro bunyod kardand. Panama solhoi 1542—1565 tobei general-kapitanii Gvatemala, to 1718 dar hayati noib-shohii Peru, sonitar noib- shohii Granadai Nav bud.

Solhoi 1810—1826 jang baroi istiqloliyati mustamlikahoi ispani dar Amerika vusat yoft. Noyabri 1821 shurish gardanai Panamaro niz faro girift. Dastahoe, ki S. Bolivar (rohbari muborizai milliyu ozodikhohii Granadai Nav va Venesuela) firistoda bud, ba shurishgaron hamroh shudand. Badi janghoi shadid 28 noyabri 1821 Panama az tobeiyati Ispa­niya baromadani khudro elon kard va ba Granadai Nav hamroh shuda dar hayati on uzvi Respublikai federativii Kolumbiyai Kabir gardid. Soli 1830 Kolumbiyai Kabir barham khurd va Panama hamchun departament ba hayati respublikai Granadai Nav dokhil shud (az soli 1886 Kolumbiya).

3 noyabri 1903 istiqloliyati siyosii Respublikai Panama elon shud. Vale khudi hamon moh Panama majbur shud bo ShMA shartnomae bandad, ki muvofiqi on territoriyai Panama, ki dar on ka­nal sokhta meshud, «abadan» ba ikh­tiyori ShMA meguzasht. Soli 1904 kon­stitutsiyam Panama qabul shud, ki on ba ShMA huquq medod dar in mamlakat qushunhoyashro joygir kunad.

Onho baroi furu pishondani khurujhoi ziddi imperialistii khalqi Panama borho istifoda burda shudand. Soli 1928 avvalin ittifoqhoi kasabai Panama tashkil yoftand. Soli 1930 guruhhoi kommunisti ba Partiyai Kommunis­tii Panama muttahid shudand.

Buhroni iqtisodii jahonii solhoi 1929—1933 iqtisodiyoti mamlakatro kharob va munosibathoi ShMA va Panamaro beshtar tezu tund kard. Panama solhoi Jangi duyumi jahoni (1939—1945) ba Yaponiya, Germaniya, Italiya (1941) rasman jang elon kard; may 1942 boshad, bo ShMA shartnoma basta, 15 hazor ga zamini khudro ba on baroi sokhrani bazai haarbi ba ijora (to okhiri jang) dod. Muborizai sobitqadamonae, ki khalqi Panama solhoi 1947— 1949 baroi barham dodani bazahoi harbi burd, ShMA-ro majbur kard, ki zaminhoi solhoi jang ijora gi­riftaashro ba Panama bargardonad.

Galabai Revolyutsiyai Kuba (1959) ba inkishofi muborizai milliyu ozodikhohii khalqi Panama musoidat kard. Soli 1959 — ibtidoi solhoi 60 namoishhoi umumikhalqi ba vujud omadand va ishtirokchiyoni onho az amerikoiho bargardondani zo­nai kanali Panamaro talab kardand. Askaroni amerikoi namoishi onhoro tirboron namudand. Bo talabi khalq hukumati Panama aloqai diplomatiashro az ShMA kand. 11 oktyabri 1968, badi tabadduloti harbi, ge­neral O. Torrikhos Errero ba sari hokimiyat omad. Khuntai harbi bo sardorii Torrikhos konstitutsiyaro bekor, Assambleyai milliro parokanda va faoliyati tamomi partiya­hoi siyosiro man kard.

Soli 1970 ba­di az sari hokimiyat dur kardani yak qator azoyoni reaksionii khun­ta hukumati navi Panama doir ba ziroatkori, maorif, mahdud namudani daromadi monopoliyahoi khoriji va gayra yuslohot guzarond. Mulki 58 zamindori kalon musodira karda shud. Soli 1972 shirkati kaloni elektroenergetikii amerikoi «Fuersa i lus» milli kunonida shud. Avgusti 1972 intikhoboti Alsambleyai milli guzaronda shud va bori avval dar tarikhi mamlakat namoyandagoni khalq ba on intikhob gardidand. Assambleyai milli sentyabri 1972 konstitutsiyai navro maqul donist.

Soli 1978 dar mamlakat prosessi digargunsozihoi progressisi davom kard. Baroi tayyor kardani loihai qonuni az nav barqaror namudani faoliyati partiyahoi siyosi komissiyai makhsus tashkil yoft. Dar kori komissiya kommunistoni Panama niz ishtirok kardand. 18 apreli 1978 se­nata ShMA Shartnomai navro dar borai kanali Panama tasdiq namud. Shartnomai mazkur to soli 2000 ba respublikai Panama dodani kanali Panama­ro peshbini menamoyad.

Partiyahoi siyosi va ittifoqhoi kasaba. Sentyabri 1978 dar borai legali kunondani partiyahoi siyosi qonun baromad. (Faoliyati partiyahoi si­yosi az soli 1968 man shuda bud). Par­tiyai revolyutsioni -d e m o k- r a t i (PRD; tasisash 1978). P a r t i ya i  p a n a m i s t i (PP; tasisash asri 19). Partiyai khalqii Pa­nama (PKhP)—partiyai kommunistoni Panam,tasisash 1930. Konfedera­tsiyai mehnatkashoni Pana­ma (tasisash 1950). Mar kazi millii ittifoqhoi k a s a bai mehnatkashoni Pana­ma (tasisash 1970).

Khojagii qishloq. Panama mamlakati agrarist. Xojagii qishloqi on bo ziroatkori va chorvodori mashgul ast. Eksporta asosii mamlakat banan ast. Bananzorho asosan dar sohilhoi uqyonusi Orom voqeand. Soli 1980 1050 hazor t. banan jamovari karda shud. Qismi ziyodi mahsulotro hunarmandoni khurd medihand. Panama ba khorija qahva, kakao, nayshakar mebarorad. Sholi, juvorimakka, tamoku, pakhta va gayra parvarish karda meshavad. Mamlakat soli 1525 hazor gov, 195 hazor khuk va 165 hazor asp dosht. Parrandaparvari niz taraqqi kardaast. Az hayvonhoi bahri krevetka (kharchangi bahri) shikor mekunand.

Sanoat. Sanoat sust taraqqi kar­daast. Korkhonahoi khurd beshtarand. Iqtidori stansiyahoi elektri — 550 hazor kVt (1979). Korkhonahoi sanoati asosan bo korkardi ashyoi khomi khojagii qishloq mashguland. Korkhonahoi poyafzoli charmi, duzandagi, kogazu karton, mebelu faner va gayra mavjudand. Dar Las-Minas zavodi sofkorii neft kor mekunad.

Naqliyot. Tuli umumii rohi ohan 474 km. rohhoi moshingard 7,8 hazor km. Bandari kalontarin — Panama. Solhoi 1980 az Kanali Panama 13,8 hazor kishti guzasht. Aeroporti baynalkhalqi — Tokumen dar nazdnkii poytakht voqest. Vohidi pul —balboa. (1 balboa = 1 dollari ShMA, 1981).

Nigahdorii tandurusti. Soli 1974  ba 1000 nafar aholi 34,5 tavallud, 5,7 nafar favt, ba 1000 nafar kudaki navzod 37,6 favt rost meomad. Bemorihoi tablarza, dil, saraton, sil va gayra pahn shudaand. Khizmati tibbi dar bemorkhonahoi davlati va muassisahoi sugurtai ijtimoi rasonda me­shavad. Soli 1972 dar Panama 38 bemorkhonai doroi 5,7 hazor kat (taqriban 3 kat ba 1000 nafar) bud. 1,2 hazor dukhtur (1 dukhtur ba 1,2 hazor nafar), 155 dukhturi dandon, 60 dorusoz va taqriban 3 hazor kormandi miyonai tib kor mekard.

Maorif. Soli 1946 talimi hatmii bachahoi 7—15-sola jori shud. Baroi kudakoni 5—6-sola muassisahoi tomaktabi mavjudand. Soli 1972 ba 9,3 hazor kudak 170 bogchai bachagon khizmat merasond. Soli tahsili 1972-1973 dar 2127 maktabi ibtidoi 305,7 hazor talaba tahsil mekard; dar 2 universitet 16,4 hazor student mekhond. Kitobkhonai Universiteti Panama, Kitobkhonai milli, Muzei millii Panama hastand.

Matbuot, radio va televizion. Soli 1974 dar Panama 16 gazeta nashr meshud: gazetai harruzai «Kritika» («Critica»), az soli 1959; «Matutino” («El Matutino»), az 1968; «Ora» («La Hora»), az 1947; «Unidad» («La Unidad»), organi Partiyai khalqii Pa­nama, az 1973 va gayra Radio va televizion dar ikhtiyori shirkathoi khususiand. Stansiyai radioi hukumati «Libertad» az soli 1971 va televizion aa 1959 kor mekunand.

Adabiyot. Adabiyoti khalqii Panama (ba zaboni ispani) to miyonai asri 19 zeri tasiri adabiyoti Kolumbiya inkishof meyoft. Ba tufayli peshrafti iqtisodiyotu madaniyat hatto to az Kolumbiya judo shudani Panama sayu kushish ba vujud ovardani adabiyoti milli avj girift. Dar in bobat Jamiyati dustdoroni maorif (tasisash 1845) roli kalon bozid, ki on shoironi romantik X. Kolunkhe (1837—1899), T. M. Fyoye (1834—1862) va X. M. Aleman (1830—1887)-ro ba maydon ovard. Namoyandagoni ba nom mo­dernizm— D. Errera (1870—1914), G. Andreve (1879—1940) va digaron dar muborizai siyosi ishtirok doshta ba peshrafti madaniyati milli musoidat mekardand.

Revolyutsiyai burjuzii – demokratii Meksi­ka (1910—1917) va Jangi yakumi jahoni sababi ba du jarayon taqsim shu­dani ahli adab gardid. Ashori D. Korei (1899—1957), D. Errera Sevilyano (1902—1950, majmuai «Surudi gulom», 1947) va digaron ba masalahoi muhimi ijtimoi bakhshida shudaand. Dar nasri I. de X. Valdes (1902— 1959), X. E. Uerta (tavalludash 1899), M. A. Rodriges (tavalludash 1919) va digaron hayoti shahru dehot realistona tasvir yoftaand. Aksari adibon badi duyumi jahoni khalkhro ba muborihai ziddi beadolatii ijtimoi davat mekardand. Romanhoi S. A. Kandanedo (tavalludash 1906), R. Osores (tavalludash 1910) ba hamin mavzu bakhshida shudaand. Novellanavison E. Chues (tavalludash 1934), X. M. Bayyard Lerma (tavalludash 1937), shoiron D. Moran (tavalludash 1932) va digaron dar asarhoi khud muborizai khalqro baroi sulh demokratiya va ziddi impernalistoni Amerika tasvir kardaand.

Memori va sanati tasviri. Ma-daniyati qadimai hinduyoni Panama (to asri 16) zeri tasiri madaniyati Meksika, mamlakathoi Amerikai Mar­kazi, Kolumbiya va gayra tashakkul yoft. Dar asri 20 dar shahrhoi Panama va Ko­lol komplekshoi memori va binoho dar ruhiyai jarayonhoi hozirai memorii ShMA sokhta tudand (memoron G. de Ru, I. Galindo Valyarino, O. Mendes Guardiya ananai khalqiro niz nstifoda burdand). Dar sanati tasvirii asri 20 naqshhoi monumentalii ramzi, osori naqqoshi va portretu mujassamahoi R. Lyuis, haykalhoi X. M. Uloa, rasmhoi manzaravii X. F. Arosemena va digaron maqomi makhsus dorand. Sanati khalqii hinduyon niz baso gunogunrang ast.

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SAKhSIYON, dehaest dar Soveti qishloqi Guli- surkhi rayoni Uroteppa, vil. Lenin- obod. Terr. k-zi «Rohi …