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ShIRKhORA

ShIRKhORA, tifli shirmak, raze, kudaki shirkhurro guyand. Davrai shirmakii kudak taqr. 1— 1,5 sol ast. Az ruzi tavallud to yakmohagi davrai navzodi hisob meshavad. Vazni navzod ba hisobi miyona 3200—3400 (az 2500 to 4500) g, qadash 50 (az 47 to 50) sm, davri sarash 32—34 sm ast. Dar davrai navzodi dar organizmi kudak bisyor tagyiroti morfologiyu (sokht) funksionali (amaliyot) ba amal meoyand. Mas., 3—4 ruzi avval vazni kudak 150—300 g kam va dar yakmohagi 600 —700 g ziyod meshavad. Harorati badani navzod haftahoi avval tagyiryobanda buda, beshtar ba harorati muhit vobastagi dorad. Maynai navzod nisbatan kalon buda, mushak va azoi bosirayu someaash sust taraqki kardaast. Pustash tunuki gulobirang ast. Dar hayoti navzod mubodilai ob ahamiyati kalon dorad; 75 —80% vazni kudak ob ast.

kudak

Sh. soli avval tez (to 25 sm) qad mekashad. Vazni Sh. dar 5—6 mohagi az vazni peshtaraaash du marotiba va okhiri sol se barobar ziyod meshavad. Uzvhoi hozimai Sh. dar avval faqat ba hazmi shir mutobiqand, bad tadrijan baroi hazmi digar gizo niz qobiliyat paydo mekunand. Bazan kudak hangomi makidani sina havoi bisyorero niz furu mebarad va dar natija shiri khurdaashro qay mekunad. Binobar in badi makonidan kudakro to khoriji havo (orug zadan) yakchand daqiqa rost nigoh doshtan lozim ast. Kudak az bisyor shir khurdan niz qay mekunad. Agar kudak badi yagon soati shirkhurdanash qay kunad, on goh u bemor ast, tez-tez tar kardan, najosati luobu khunolud, damidani shinam, baland shudani harorati badan niz nishonahoi bemorii Sh.-hoand. Aksarn Sh.-hoi solim dar 6—8 mohagi dandon mebarorand. Sh.-i yaksola boyad 8 dandon doshta boshad.

Ehtiyojoti Sh. ba havoi toza az digaron ziyodtar ast. Sh.-i solimi inkishofash mutddil dar 2 mokhagi sarashro nngoh doshta metavonad, ruyashro suig ovoz megardonad, mekhandad. Dar 3 mohagi Sh. serharakat meshavad; sarashro ozod nngoh doshta pahlu megardad, bazan modarashro meshinosad. Dar 4 mohagi ba shikamash takya karda, chizhoi harakatnokro nagz mushohida mekunad, odami shinosu noshnnosro farq menamoyad. Sh.-i 5 moha modarashro khub meshinosad, chizhoro doshta sui dahon mebarad, yagon joyro qapida meshinad. Dar 6 mohagi az shikam ba takhtapusht megardad, mustaqilona meshinad, bozichahoro mebardorad, kushishi gejidan mekunad. Dar 7-mohagi ba zonu meistad, gavak mekashad. Sh.-i 8 moha az didani chizhoi nav ba hayajon meoyad, mustaqilona darro mekashad, yagon joyro qapida rost meistad. Dar 9—40 mohagi rost mekhezad, harakat kardani meshavad, baze kalimaho (mas., «ocha», «dada» va g.)-ro talaffuz mekunad. Dar 11— 12 mohagi roh meravad, nomi bisyor chizhoro yod megirad, baze uzvhoi badanash (chashm, dast, poy va g.) -ro nishon medihad.

Sabzish va inkishofi Sh. ba nighubini khub va tarbiyai durust vobasta ast. Sh.-i 1,5—3 moharo badi har 3,5 soat va az 3 moha kalonro badi har 4 soat khurondan lozim ast. Kudaki solimro dar 11—12 mohagi (gayri tobiston) az sina judo mekunand. Khonai khobi Sh. boyad ravshan va tozayu ozoda boshad. To 6 mohagi Sh.-ro dar ruz va bad haftae 2—3 bor obbozi dorondan zarur ast. Libosi Sh. boyad tang naboshad. Baroi dar Sh. yakchand yaktakcha (kurtachai peshkushod, kamzulcha, parpechi tunuk, parpechi gumazi, kampal va g.) lozimand.

Ad.: Razvitie i vospitanie rebyonka ot rojdeniya do tryokh let, M. 1965; Tur A. F., Fiziologiya i patologiya novorojdennikh detey. L.. 1967; Spok B., Rebyonok i ukhod za nim M., 1971: Molodim roditelyam, M., 1973.

M. YOqubova.

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