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Planhoi panjsolai taraqqii khojagii khalqi SSSR

Planhoi panjsolai taraqqii khojagii khalqi SSSR, shakli asosii kashidani plani taraqqii ijtimoiyu iqtisodii mamlakat, qismi tarkibii sistemai plankhoi darozmuddat, miyonamuhlat (panjso­la) na planhoi jorii khojagii khalq, meboshad. (Nigared Plankashii khojagii khalq). Planhoi panjsola maqsadi plani darozmuddatro aniqtar karda, muhlati ijroi muntazami onro muayyan mekunand, baroi az jihati tekhnikiyu iqtisodi purra asosnok kardani vazifahoe, ki dar solhoi minbada dar nazdi khojagii khalqi .mamlakatamon istodaand, tadbirho peshbini mekunand. Har yak plani panjsola vazifai asosii iqtisodi dorad, ki ba jihathoi khosi hamin davra muvofiqat mekunad va dar taraqqii khojagiyu siyosii mamlakat zinai nave meboshad. Davlati Soveti tavassuti planhoi panjsola zakhirahoro ba halli vazifahoi barpo kardani bazai modditekhnikii kommu­nizm va baland bardoshtani darajai nakuahvolii moddii khalq ravona mekunad.

Hangomi tartib dodani planhoi panjsola, pesh az hama, ba talaboti qonunhoi obektvii iqtisodii so­tsializm muvofiq budani onho — ba komyobihoi hozirazamon va perspektivahoi inkishofi ilmu tekhnika, ba talaboti jamiyat va imkoniyathoi realii qone gardonidani in talabot asos yoftani planho tamin karda meshavad. Dar planhoi panjsola suratu tanosub, hajmi istehoolu sokhtmoni asosii sohaho va territoriyahoi alohida, vazifahoi kor kar­da baromadan va jori namudani tekhnikayu tekhnologiyai nav dar khojagii khalq inkishofi konsentrasiya, takmilu vase namudaii makhsusgardonivu kooperativonii istehsolot, oqilona jobajokunii quvvahoi istehsolkunanda, inkishofi robitahoi iqtisodii beruni (makhsusan bo mamlakathoi azoi SEV), tadbirhoi ba­land bardoshtani darajai moddiyu madanii zindagonii khalqi soveti va gayra muayyan karda meshavavd.

Talabhoi muhimtarini planhoi panjsola inhoyand: dar asosi tezonidani surati progressi tekhniki va behtar istifoda namudani zakhirahoi moddiyu moliyavi va mehnati ba­land bardoshtani istehsoloti chamiyati, past kardani arzishi aslii mahsulot, afzoishi hosilnokii mehnat, istifodai purrai iqtidori istehsoli, kam kardani sarfi ashyoi khom, suzishvori, masoleh ba vohidi mahsulot, muttasil ‘behtar namudani sifat, tezonidani surati sokhtmoni obekthoi nav va ba istifoda do­dani onho.; jihathoi milli va digar khususiyathoro ba hisob girifta, ta­raqqii kompleksii khojagii respublikahoi ittifoqi va nohiyahoi iqtisodiro tamin kardan. Suporishi planhoi panjsola rafti taraqqii iqtisodiyoti mamlakat, digarshavii talaboti jamiyat ba in yo on mahsu­lot, zakhirahoi moliyaviyu moddiro ba hisob girifta dar planhoi solonai khojagii khalq muayyan karda me­shavad.

Planhoi panjsolaro bo suporishi Partiyai Kommunisti va Hukumati Soveti organhoi plankashii davla­ti, mamuriyu istehsoli va muassisahoi ilmi tartib medihand va on az du marhala iborat ast: 1) muay­yan kardani rohhoi asosii taraqqii khojagii khalqi mamlakat dar davrai plankashi. Vazifai asosii on mu­ayyan kardani problemahoi asosi va muhimmi davrai plankashi va nishon dodani rohu vositahoi halli in problemaho; 2) dar asosi Direktivahoi tasdiqnamudani sezdi Partiyai Kommunistii Ittifoqi Soveti KPSS tartib dodani plani panjsolai taraqqii khojagii khalqi Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR va taqsimi suporishhoi solonai vazorathoi Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR, respublikahoi ittifoqi va nohiyahoi iqtisodii mamlakat.

Az okhirhoi soli 1928 khojagii khalqi Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR dar asosi planhoi panjsolae, ki ideyahoi lenini va nuqtahoi nazarii plankashii perspektivi, siyosati ijtmoiyu iqtisodii Partiyai Kommunistii Ittifoqi Soveti KPSS-ro tajassum mekunand, taraqqi meyobad. Har yak plani panjsola dar taraqqii ijtimoi, iqtisodi va tekhnikii mam­lakat davrai muhim buda, dar tanosub va strukturai istehsoloti jamiyati peshravii sifatan navest.

Plani panjsolai  yakum(1929—32) dar asosi Direktivahoi Sezdi 15-umi Vakiloni Komiteti Partiyavii(b) (1927) tartib doda shud va onro Sezdi 5-umi umuittifoqii Sovetho (1929) tasdiq namud. Vay davomi mantiqi va inkishofi ideyai plani darrozmuddati GOELRO bud. Vazifai asosii plani panjsola az bunyodi tahkursii iqtisodiyoty sotsialisti, minbad mahdud kardani unsurhoi kapitalisti dar shahru dehot, mustahkam namu­dani qobiliyati mudofiavii mamla­kat iborat bud. Plan vazifa va tad­birhoi az mamlakati agrari ba davlati mutaraqqii sanoati tabdil do­dani Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR, kollektivonii qismi ziyodi khojagihoi dehqononro peshbini kard.

Qismi asosii planro programmai sokhtmon tashkil dod, ki on ba tamini peshravii jiddii tekhnikai istehsolot, tashkil va jobajokunii on ravona shuda bud. Hajmi umumii mablagi plani panjsolai yakum 7,8 milliard sum va nisbat ba 11 soli guzashta (1918—28) 2 barobar ziyod bud. Nisfi mablagi umumi ba taraqqii sanoat (beshtar az 75% on ba sohahoi industriyai vaznin) va naqliyot peshbini shuda bud.

Yakchand suporishhoi istehsoli va sokhtmoni plani panjsolai 1-um — sokhtani bazai 2-yumi angishtu me­tallurgiya dar Ural va Sibir dar sezdi 16-umi partiya purra va aniq karda shudand.

Manbahoi asosii mablagguzorii asosi foida va daromadi rentai kor- khonahoi davlatiyu kooperativi bud. Baroi ijroi programmai sokhtmon hissai andukht dar daromadi milli ziyod karda shud: az 21,3%’ (1928) to 26,9% (4932). Musobiqai sotsialisti baroi pesh az muhlat ijro namudani suporishhoi panjsola vusat yoft. Dar natija in plani panjsola dar 4 solu 3 moh ijro shud.

1500 korkhonai navu kaloni sanoatii davlati ba kor andokhta, yakchand sohahoi nav — traktoru avtomobil, dastgohu. asbobsozi, istehsoli alyu­miniyu sanoati aviasiya va khimiya az nav sokhta shudand. Dar metallurgiyai siyoh, — sohai khele muhimmi sanoati vaznin, ki ba industrikunonii mamlakat asos shudaast, sohahoi elektrometallurgiya, istehsoli khulahoi sakhtu badosht, pulodi khushsifat ba vujud omadand. Sanoati neft va digar. ‘Sohahoi sanoati vaznin kullan az nav sokhta shudand.

Dneproges-l ba nomi Vladimir Ilich Lenin, stansihoi elektrii olavii rayonii Zuevo, Chelyabinsk, Stalingrad va Belorussiya ba kor daromadand. Dar sharqi Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti bazai 2-yumi angishtu metallurgiya—Kombinati Uralo-Kuznesk sokhta shud. Kombinati me­tallurgii Kuznesk va Magnitogorsk, dar Donbass, Kuzbass va Karaganda konhoi kalontarini angisht, zavodi traktorsozii Stalingrad, Kharkov, zavodhoi avtomobilsozii Moskva, Gorkiy, kombinathoi sellyulozai kogazi Kondopogayu Vishersk, 3avodi nurihoi nitrogendori Berezniki, Kombinati melanji Ivanovo, 3avodi 1-umi podshipniksozii davlatii Moskva va korkhonahoi ziyode bino yoftand.

Daromadi millii Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR taqriban 2 barobar, istehsoloti sanoati beshtar az 2 barobar, hosilnokii meh- nat dar sanoat 41 % afzud. Dar strukturai sanoat va tamomi sohahoi iqtisodiyoti mamlakat peshravii kalon ba amal omad. Tanosubi mahsuloti guruhi «A» dar hajmi umumii mahsuloti hama sohahoi sanoat az 39,5% (1928) ba 53,4% (1932) ra- sid. Mahsuloti moshinsozi va korkardi metall 4 marotiba ziyod shud. Soli 1932 taqriban 78% zamini kisht ba kolkhozu sovdozho va digar khojagihoi davlati taalluq dosht, ki 84%-i mahsuloti gallai mamlakatro medodand.

Dar davomi panjsola bo maqsadi ijroi plani GOELRO korhoi asosi anjom doda shudand. Programmai sokhtmoni stansiyahoi elektri, ki dar plan peshbini shuda bud, barziyod ijro gardid. Iqtidori stansiyahoi elektrii Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR dar in solho qarib 2,5, istehsoli quvvai elektr 2.7 ba­robar afzud.

Dar natajai industronii sotsia­listii mamlakat va kollektivonii khojagii qishloq  bazai madani khele vase va shumorai ‘korgaronu mutakhassisoni balandikhtisos ziyod shud. Solhoi khonishi1932/33 shumorai khonandagoni mamtabhoi oli nisbat ba solhoi 1927/28-um 3 barobar talabagoni tekhnikumho ziyoda az 3 marotiba, miqdori khonandagoni maktabhoi ibtidoi 2 barobar ziyod shud.

Dar natijai ijroi suporishhoi panjsolai 1-um tahkursii iqtiso­diyoti sotsialisti — industriyai puriqtidori vaznin va khojagii uishloqi kollek- tivii mekhanikonidashuda bunyod gardid, ki in ustuvor gardidani molikiyati sotsialisti budani vositahoi istehsolotro nishon medod. Dar mamlakat bekori az bayn raft, ruzi korii 7-soata jori shud.

Khususan, hayoti khojagiyu madanii respublikaho  va viloyatho khele pesh raft. Istehsoli mahsulot dar Ittifoqi Soveti 2 marotiba va dar respublikaho va viloyathoi milli boshad, 3,5 barobar afzud. Rohi tezonidani surati industronii respublikahoyu viloyathoi milli dar panjsolahoi minbada niz davom doda shud.

Plani panjsolai duyum (19.33—37)-ro Sezdi 17-umi Vakiloni Komiteti Partiyai(b) (1934) tasdiq namud. Plan vazifahoi muhimmi ijtimoiyu iqtisodii zerinro ba miyon guzosht: tamoman barham dodani unsurhoi kapitalisti, purra bartaraf namudani sababhoi istismori odam az tarafi odam, ba okhir rasonidani sokhtmoni bazai tekhnikii hamai sohaho. Dar natijai ijroi plan jamiyati sotsialisti, bazai moddiyu tekhnikii sotsializm asosap barpo karda shud, strukturai navi sinfii jamiyati sotsialisti tarkib yoft, hamkorii barodaronai khalqhoi Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR mustahkam gardid.

Sistemai khojagii sotsialisti hukmron gardid. Tanosubi sektori sotsialisti dar istehsoli fondhoi mamlakat 99%, az on jumla dar is­tehsoli fondhoi davlati 90% -ro tashkil kard. Qarib 95%-i aholi dar khojagihoi sotsialisti kor mekard va bo on aloqai zich dosht. Soli 1937 khojagii sotsialisti 99%-i daromadi milly, 99,8%-i mahsuloti umumii sanoat va 98,5%-i mahsuloti umumii khojagii qishloqro istehsol kard. 100%’ muomiloti moli chakanaro savdoi davlati va kooperativi tashkil mekard. Un­surhoi kapitalistii shahru dehot tamoman barham khurdand. Daromadi milli nazar ba soli 1932 2,1, mahsuloti sanoat 2,2, az on jumla mahsuloti moshinsozi 2,8, mahsuloti sanoati khimiya 3 barobar afzud. Istehsoli quvvai elektr 2,7 marotiba ziyod shud. Sohahoi sanoati suzishvori dar zaminai bazai mustahkami tekhniki taraqqi kardand. Barobari duchand shudani istehsoli angishti mamlakat istehsoli on dar Kuzbass 2,6 maro­tiba afzud. Istehsoli neft umuman 37%, dar Boshqirdistonu Qazoqiston taqriban 4 barobar afzud.

Miqdori mahsuloti sanoat dar hachmi umumii mahsuloti sanoat va khojagii qishloq az 70,2% (1932) ba 77,4% (1037) rasid. 80%-i mahsuloti sanoatro kor­honahoi nave dodand, ki dar sol­hoi panjsolahoi 1-um va 2-yum sokh­ta shudaand. Borkashonii naqliyoti rohi ohan dar davomi panjsola ziyoda az 2 marotiba afzud. Hosilnokii mehnat dar sanoat 90%- afzud, ki in natijai baland shudani darajai tekh­niki va istifodai bosamari tekhnikai nav bud. Kollektnvonii khojagii qishoq ba okhir rasid va sokhti kolkhozi barpo karda shud. Okhirhoi soli 1937 dar khojagii qishloq 456 hazor traktor va taqriban 129 hazor kombayn kor mekard. Mah­suloti khojagii qishloq 1,3 barobar, az jumla hosili umumii ziroati galladona 1.7, pakhta 2 barobar ziyod shud. Soli 1937 kishtzori ziroati khojagii qishloq ba 135,3 million gektar rasid. Istehsoli molhoi istemolii khalq 2 barobar afzud.

Ba tufayli ijroi programmai sokhtmoni panjsolai 2-yum hajmi mab- lagguzorii asosi 19,9 milliard sumro tashkil dod, ki nazar ba panjsolai 1-um 2,3 barobar ziyod bud. 4500 korkhonai kaloni sanoatii davlati ba istifoda doda shud. Korkhonahoi kalontarini sokhtashuda inhoyand: zavodhoi moshinsozii vaznini Uralsk na Kramatorsk, zavodhoi vagonsozii Uralsk va traktorsozii Chelyabinsk, zavodhoi metallurgii Krivoy Rog, Novolipesk, Kovotulsk, «Azovstal» va «Zaporojstal», kombinathoi bofandagii Toshkent, matohoi pakhtagini Barnaul va yakchand korkhonahoi digar. Programmai sokhtmoni rohi ohan ijro gardid, inshoothoi kaloni naqliyoti obi — Kanali Belomoru Bal­tika va Kanali ba nomi Moskva ba kor daromadand. Stansiyahoi elekt­rii olavii rayoni Dubrovka, No­vomoskovsk, Kemerovo, Sredneuralsk va stansiyahoi elektrii obii Nij­nesvirsk, Rionsk, Kanakyorsk ba istifoda doda shudand. Soli 1935 navbati yakumi metropoliteni Moskva ba kor andokhta shud.

Sokhtmoni manzil va ijtimoiyu ma­dani khele vusat yoft. Darajai mod­diyu madanii hayoti mehnatkashon baland gardid. Talimi ibtidoii umumi jori karda shud, malumoti umumi, miyonai makhsus va oli inkishof yoft. Ba tashakkuli intelligensiyai navi soveti, ki va sinfn korgar va dehkonon baromadaand, diqqa- ti kalon doda shud, prosessi revolyutsiyai madani davom mekard. Soli 1934-um 40% donishjuyoni maktabhoi oli khatmkunamdagoni rabfakho bu­dand. Miqdori teatrho, kino, klubho va kitobkhonaho, shifokhonaho va khonahoi istirohat khele afzud.

Plani panjsolai seyum (1938—42)-ro Sezdi 18-umi Vakiloni Komiteti Partiyavii(b) (1939) tasdiq namud. Dar in panjsola peshbini shuda bud, ki Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR boyad az rui istehsoli mahsulot ba dar sari aholi ba mamlakathoi in­dustrialii mutaraqqii kapitalis­ti barobar shavad va az on pesh guzarad. Dar qarorhoi sezd gufta me- shud, ki SSSR asosan sotsializmro barpo namuda, ba davrai anjomi sokhtmoni jamiyati sotsialisti va tadrijan az sotsializm ba kommu­nizm guzashtan qadam guzosht. Azbaski vaziyati baynalkhalqi mu­rakkab bud, dar plan na tanho mas- alahoi baland bardoshtani iqtidori industriali, mustahkam kardani sokh­ti kolkhoazi, baland bardoshtani da­rajai moddii zindagii ommai khalq, inchunin masalai minbad baland bardoshtani iqtidoru qobiliyati mudofiavii mamlakat ba vujud ovardani zakhiradhoi kaloni davlati niz peshbini shudand.

Dar 3 soli avvali panjsola mah­suloti umumii hama sohahoi sano­at 45% va moshinsozi ziyoda az 70% afzud. Dar zarfi seyunim soli panj­sola (1938 va nimsolai avvali 1941) mablagguzori ba khojagii khalq 21 milliard sumro tashkil dod, 3000 korkhonai navi kaloni sanoatii davlati ba istifoda doda shud. Stansiyahoi elektrii olavii rayonki(Kurakhovsk, Quvvasoy va Tkvarcheli, stansiyahoi elektrii obod Uglichu Komsomol ba kor daromadand. 3avodhoi metallurgii Novotagil va Petrovsk-Zabaykalskiy, zavodhoi misgudozii Sredne- Uralsk va Balkhash, 3avodi korkardi nefti Ufimskiy, 3avodi avtomobili kamlitraji Moskva, 3avodi sementi Enakieva, kombinathoi sellyulozayu kogazi Segejayu Maries sokhta shudand. Shumorai korgaronu khizmatchiyoni khojagii khalq az 11,4 million (1928) ba 31,2 million (1940) rasid. Muassisahoi kasbhoi tekhnikii navi umumi tashkil shudand, ki baroi ha­mai sohahoi istehsolot va khizmati maishi kadrhoi balandikhtisos tayyor mekardand. Okhiri solhoi 30-yum talimi 7-sola asosan jori shud. Miqdori donishjuyoni maktabhoi oli va miyonai makhsus khele afzud. As­piranturai nazdi maktabhoi oli va instituthoi tadqiqoti ilmi khele inkishof yoft.

Hujumi ahdshikanonai Germaniyai fashisti (iyuni 1941) ba Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR kori ijroi bomuvaffaqiyati planhoi panjsolai 3-yumro khalaldor kard. Iqtidori iqtisodii ruzafzuni mamlakat, ki natijai ijroi planhoi panjsolai 1-um va 2-yum bud, talabai olamshumuli tarikhii khalqi sovetiro bar dushmani purzur ta- min kard. Chunonchi, soli 1940 fondhoi asosii istehsolii khojagii khalq nisbat ba soli 1928-um 2,4, daromadi milli ziyoda az 5, mahsuloti umumii sanoat 6,5, az jumla istehsoli vositahoi istehsolot 10 barobar afzud. Mahsuloti umumii khojagii qishloq 32% ziyod shud, soli 1940 kishtzori ziroati khojagii qishloq az 113 million (1928/ ba 150,6 million gektar rasid. Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR ba tufayli afzaliyati surati taraqqii iqtisodiyotash dar arafai Jangi 2-yumi jahon (1939— 45) az rui hajmi istehsoli mahsu­loti sanoat dar Evropa joi 1-um va dar jahon joi 2-yumro ishgol kard. Solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani dar aqibgoh va badho dar nodiyahoi az fashistoni istilogar ozodshudai mamlakat taraqqii iqtisodiyoti soveti dar asosi planhoi solona, semoha va mohona ba roh monda shud.

Solhoi jang (az 1 iyuli 1941 to 1 yanvari 1946) 3500 korkhonai navi kaloni sanoati bino va 7500 korkhona az nav barqaror karda shud.

Badi ba okhir rasidani jang plani panjsolai chorum (1946— 50) tartib doda shud va onro mohi marti 1946 Soveti Olii SSSR tasdiq namud.. In panjsola barqaror kardani rayonhoi vayronshudai mam­lakat, ba darajai peshazjangii ta­raqqii sanoat va khojagii qishoq rasidan va minbad dar in asos behtar kardani zindagii khalqi sovetiro vazifahoi asosii khojagiyu siyosi donist. Suporishhoi plani panjsola pesh az muhlat ijro gardidand. Iqtidori is- tehsolii mamlakat purra barqaror shud va khele afzud. Soli 1950 mahsulo­ti umumii sanoat nazar ba soli 1940-um 73%, fondhoi asosii istehsoli 24%, daromadi milli 64% ziyod shud. Mablagguzorii asosii khojagii khalq 48 milliard sumro tashkil dod. Moshinsozi va sanoati khimiya, sohahoi ashyoi khomi sanoat taraqqi kardand, bazai moddiyu tekhnikii khojagii qishloq mus­tahkam gardid.

Dar davomi panjsola yakchand korkhonai navi kaloni sanoatii davlati sokhta va 6200 korkhonai solhoi jang vayronshuda barqaror karda shudand. Stansiyahoi elektrii olavii rayonii Nijneturinsk, Shyokino, stan­siyahoi elektrii obii Farhodu Khramsk, Niva-GES Sh, 3avodi metallur­gii Zakavkaziya, Kombinati surbu rudi Ust-Kamenogorsk ba kor daromadand. 3avodi turbinasozii Kaluga, zavodhoi dastgohi vazninsozii Kolomnayu Ryazan va avtomobilsozii Ku­taisi mahsulot dodand. Gazoprovodhoi Saratov — Moskva, Kokhtla-Yarve — Leningrad, Dashava — Kiev sokhta ba istifoda doda shudand. Sokhtmoni inshoothoi kalontarini energetiki, kanalho va sistemahoi navi obyori, ba vujud ovardani mintaqahoi beshazor dar nohiyahoi dashti mamlakat cap shud.

Ilmi soveti ba muvaffadiyathoi kalon noil gasht, dar sohahoi gunoguni ilmu tekhnika kashfiyot va ikhtirohoi buzurg karda, baroi ba­land bardoshtani darajai zindagii khalq tadbirhoi jiddi andeshida shu­dand. Dar shahru posyolkahoi korgarnishin ziyoda az 100 million metr2 (dar dehot 2,7 million metr2) khonahoi istiqomati sokhta shudand. Sistemai kar­tochka ba molhoi istemolii khalq (1947) bekor karda shud, narkhi umu­mii in molho taqriban 2 barobar past furomad. Dar hama jo guzashtan ba talimi hatmii 7-sola cap shud.

Sezdi 19-umi  Partiyai Kommunistii Ittifoqi Soveti KPSS (1952) chunin vazifahoi asosii plani panjsolai panjum (1951—55)-ro muayyan kard: dar asosi inkishofi sanoati vaznin va surati balandi afzoishi mahsulnokii mehnati chamiyati minbad ham taraqqi dodani hama sohahoi khojagii khalq; behtar kardani sifat va navi mahsulot. Plan programmai vasei baland bardoshtani darajai zindagii khalqro peshbini namud.

Dar natijai ijroi plan daromadi milli 71%, fondhoi asosii isteh­solii khojagii khalq 62%, mahsuloti sanoat 85 %\ mahsuloti khojagii qishloq 21% afzud. Ba sokhtmoni yakchand sohahoi navi moshinsozi, inchunin energiyai atom zamina guzoshta shud. Hajmi mablagtuzorii asosi ba 90%’ rasid. Mahsuloti moshinsozi va metallkorkuni nazar ba soli 1950-um 2,2 barobar, hosilnokii mehnati 1 korgari sa­noat 49%’ ziyod shud. Suporishhoi beshtar istehsol kardani molhoi is­temolii khalq barziyod ijro gardid. Khususiyati muhimi plani panjsolai 5-um ba ham nazdik shudani surati inkishofi istehsoli vositahoi is­tehsolot va istehsoli molhoi istemoli bud. Agar dar panjsolai 4-um surati afzoishi mahsuloti guruhi «A” az surati afzoishi mahsuloti guruhi «B»- 36% baland boshad, pas dar panjsolai 5-um in raqam 4% shud. Baroi taraqqi dodani khojagii qishloq tadbirhoi muhim ande­shida shudand. Soli 1955 kishtzor az 146,3 million gektar (1950) ba 186 million gektar rasid. Ziroati zaminhoi navkoram va bekorkhobida, az kadr tamin kar­dani kolkhozho, baland bardoshtani mavqei prinsipi havasmandii moddii kolkhozchiyon va digar tadbirho afzoishi istehsoli mahsuloti khojagii qishloqro tamin namudand.

3200 korkhonai navi kaloni sano­atii davlati sokhta shud. Stansiyahoi elektrii olavii rayonni Pridneprovsk, Cherepet, Kuzbassi Janubi, Serovo va Urali Januby ba kor daromadand. Soli 1954 avvalin dar jahon stansiyai elektrii atomi ba kor daromad. Stansiyahoi elektrii obii Kama, Gorkiy, Simlyansk, Kakhovka, Ust-Kamevogorsk, Mingechaursk, Gyumush ba istifoda doda shudand. Kombinati metallurgii Orsko-Khalllovo, 3avodi metallurgii Cherepovesk, kom­binathoi kaliyi Berezniki, neftkorkunii Novokuybishevsk va gayra sokh­ta shudand. Sokhtmoni Kanali kishtigardi Volgayu Don ba nomi Vladimir Ilich Lenin ba okhir rasid. Muzdi mehnati realii korgaronu khizmatchiyon 39%, daromadi dehqonon ba hisobi 1 korgar 1,5 barobar afzud. Hamkorii iqtisodi bo mamlakathoi sotsialisti, makhsusan dar doirai SEV khele vusat yoft.

Ijroi planhoi panjsolai 4-umu 5-um imkon dod, ki az darajai pesh- azjangii taraqqii iqtisodii mam­lakat khele pesh ravem. Soli 1955 arzishi hamai fondhoi asosii istehsoli nazar ba soli 1940-um 2 barobar va daromadi milli 2,8 marotiba afzud.

Vazifai asosii iqtisodii pla­ni panjsolai shashum (1956— 60) az on iborat bud, ki dar zaminai beshtar taraqqi dodani sanoati vaznin, progressi bemayloni tekhniki, afzoishi hosilnokii mehnat, inki­shofi minbadai khojagii khalq, alalkhusus sohahoi progressivii sanoat, taraqqii khojagii qishloq va dar in asos darajai balandi nekuahvolii moddii khalq tamin karda shavad. Dar  panjsolai 6-um daromadi milli 54%, mahsuloti umumii sanoat 64%, mah­suloti khojagii qishloq 32% ziyod shud. Hajmi umumii mablagguzori az 91,1 milliard sum (panjsolai 5-um) ba 170,5 milliard sum rasid, yo 87% afzud. Sohahoi na­vi istehsolot — dastgohsozi, radio­tekhnika va elektrotekhnika, istehsoli molhoi maishi va asbobhoi ruzgor (yakhdon, moshinhoi jomashuy va gayra) ba vujud omadand. Hosilnokii mehnati 1 korgari sanoat 37%, sokhtmon 54% va naqliyoti rohi ohan 48% afzud. Hajmi muomiloti moli chakana 57 ziyod shud. Programmai azimi ziroati zaminhoi navkoram va bekorkhobida davom doda shud. Soli I960 za- mini kisht ba 203 million gektar rasid.

Dar tuli solhoi 1956—58-um 2690 korkhonai kaloni sanoatii davlati ba istifoda doda shud, sokhtmoni Stansiyai elektrii obii Volga ba nomi Vladimir  Ilich Lenin ba okhir rasid va khati balandshiddati elektrguzaronii GZS-i Volga — Moskva ba kor daromad. Stansiyahoi elektrii obii Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Qayroqqum, Tnibuli, Arzni va stansiyahoi elekt­rii olavii rayonki Tom — Usinsk, Verkhpetagil ba kor daromadand. 3avodi khulahoi badoshti Serov, zavodhoi neftkorkunii Novogorkovsk va Vol­gograd, Kombinati khimiyai Saratov va digar korkhonaho ba istifoda doda shudand. Soli 1950 gazoprovodi Stav­ropol — Moskva ba kor daromad.

Zarurati halli chand problemahoi muhimmi az doirai plani panjsola berunmondai khojagii khalq, daryofti vositahoi ilovagi baroi sokhtmoni ijtimoiyu madani, inchunin kashfi konhoi samarabakhshi sarvathoi tabii taqozo namudand, ki suporishhoi 2 soli okhiri panjsolai 6-um digar karda va plani haftsola (1959—65) tartib doda shavad. Sez­di 21-umi gayrinavbatii  Partiyai Kommunistii Ittifoqi Soveti KPSS (1959) taraqqi dodani quvvahoi istehsolkunandai hama sohahoi iqtisodiyot, khele ziyod namudani iqtidori iqtisodii mamlakat, muttasil baland bardoshtani darajai nekuahvolii khalqro vazifai asosii in plan donist. Makhsusan ba taraqqii sohahoi khele samarabakhshi istehsolot diqqati jiddi doda shud. Pro­grammai vasei progressi tekhniki va minbad baland bardoshtani darajai konsentrasiya, makhsusgardoni va kooperativonii istehsolot, tanzimi muzdi mehnat, vusat dodani sokhtmoni manzil peshbini shud.

Az rui nishondihandahoi asosi plan ijro gardid. Soli 1965 daromadi milli nazar ba soli 1958-um 53%,, fondhoi asosii istehsoli 91%, az on jumla dar sanoat 2 barobar, istehsoli mahsuloti sanoat 84%, khojagii qishloq 15% ziyod shud. Hosilnokii mehnat dar khojagii khalq 40%, sanoat 42%, khojagii qishloq 30% va sokhtmon 53% afzud. Mablagguzori ba khojagii khalq 281 milliard sum, yane nazar ba solhoi 1918— 5 8-um 22,2 milliar sum ziyod bud.

5470 korkhonai kaloni sanoatii davlati, az jumla stansiyahoi elekt­riki olavii rayonii Belovo va Na­zarovo (Sibir), Troiskiy va Niva (Ural), Konakovoi viloyati Kalinki va gayra sokhta shudand. Stansiyahoi elekt­rii atomii Novovoroneju Beloyarsk ba kor daromadand. Dar in muddat Stansiyai elektrii obii Bratsk (kalontarin dar jahon), hamchunin stansiyahoi elektrii obii Votkinsk, Dneprodzerjinsk, Bukhtarminsk, Kro­menchug, Kiev, zavodhoi metallurgii Sibiri Garbi va Karaganda, kombinathoi madantozakunii Kachkanar dar Ural, titanu magniyi Ust-Ka­menogorsk, shinasozii Barnaul, khi­miki Shyokino, kombinat kaliyi So­ligorsk, zavodhoi superfosfati Sumgaiti, Chorjuy, Gomel va gayra sokhta shudand. Gazoprovodi Bukhoro — Ural guzaronida shud.

Metropoliteni Ki­ev ba kor daromad. Doir ba ziyod kar­dana muzdi minimaalii korgaronu khiamatchiyon tadbirhoi mujim andeshida shudand. Andoz az muzdi mehnatii kami ziyodi korgaronu khizmatchiyon bekor yo kam karda shud. Baroi kolkhozchiyon nafaqa muqarrar gardid. Hajmi minimalii nafaqa ziyod, ruzi kori va haftahoi kori kutoh, khizmatrasonii tibbi, madani va maishii aholi behtar shud. Daromadi reali ba hisobi yak korgar 33%, az jumla daromadi kolkhozchiyon 49% afzud. Hajmi muomiloti moli chakana 1,6 marotiba ziyod shud. 558 million metr* manzil, inchunin dar kolkhozho 3510 hazor khona sokhta shud. Soli 1959 talimi umumii hatmii 8-sola jori gardid. Shumorai korgaroni balandikhtisos, mutakhassisoni        doroi malumoti oliyu miyona, inchunin miqdori kor­mandoni ilmi khele afzud.

Plani panchsolai hashtum (1966—70) az rui Direktivahoi Sezdi 23-yumi Partiyai Kommunistii Ittifoqi Soveti KPSS (1966), inchunin qarorhoi plenumhoi oktyabri (1964), marti va sentyabri (1965) Komiteti Markazii Partiyai Kommunistii Ittifoqi Soveti KPSS tartib doda shud, ki dar onho programmai darozmuddati ta­raqqii iqtisodiyoti mamlakat peshbini shuda bud. Jihati muhimtarini in programma guzashtan ba prinsini idorakunii sohavii khojagii khalq, havasmandgardonii harjonibai iqtisodii inkishof va takomuli is- tehsolot meboshad. Vazifai asosii iqtisodii panjsola az on iborat bud, ki ba tufayli istifodai komyobihoi ilmu tekhnika, taraqqii industrnalii hamai istehsoloti jamiyati, samarabakhshii istehsolot, khele taraqqi dodani sanoat, surati ba­landu ustuvori taraqqini khojagii qishloq va boloravii qatii darajai zindagii khalq tamin karda shavad. Khususiyati muhimi in plan dar yak vaqt tezonidani surati taraqqii iqtisodiyoti mamlakat va baland bardosh­tani darajai zindagii mehnatkashon bud. Dar plan vazifai jori kardani talimi miyonai umumi guzoshta shud.

Suporishhoi asosii panjsola az rui yakchand nishondihandahoi asosi ijro shudand: daromadi milli ba joi 38,4%-i plan 41,5%, daromadi re­ali ba har sari aholi 33% (dar plan 30%), istehsoli mahsuloti sa­noat 50,5% (dar plan 47—50%) af­zud. Surati afzoishi mahsuloti khojagii qishloq tez shud. Istehsoli solonai in soha ba hisobi miyona 21% (dar panjsolai guzashta 12%) ziyod gardid. Fondhoi asosii istehsoli khojagii khalq 48% afzud. Koeffisient navkunii in fondho 44%, dar khojagii qishloq, boshad, 54%-ro tashkil dod. Hajmi mab­lagguzori ba sokhtmoni asosi nazar ba solhoi 1961—65-um 43%, surati afzoishi hosilnokii mehnati jamyati 37% (dar panjsolahoi guzashta 29%) ziyod shud.

1900 korkhona va obekthoi kaloni sanoati, az jumla Stansiyai elekt­rii obii rayonii Predneprovsk, 3avodi trubasozii Voljsk, pechhoi domnagii zarfiyatashon 27SO—3000 metr3, fabrikahoi kalobai rangai Donesk, tri­kotajii Volgograd, Shakhtyorsk, Leninogorek, poyafzoli Volgogradu Cherepoves va gayra sokhta shudand. Sokht­moni sistemai yagonai energetii qismi evropoii Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR ba okhir rasid. Sistemai energetii muttahidai Si­biri Markazi sokhta shud. Omilhoi intensivi dar afzoishi daromadi milly mavsei kalon doshtand, ki in ba afeudani dosil ionii mehnat, kamshavii masolehtalabii mahsulot, behtar istifoda kardani fondhoi asosii istehsoli dar sohahoi gunogun tasir rasond.

Plani panjsolai nuhum (1971—75) az rui Direktivahoi Sezdi 24-umi Partiyai Kommunistii Ittifoqi Soveti KPSS (1971) tartib doda shud va onro khudi hamon sol sessiyai Soveti Olii Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR tasdiq namud. Vazifai asosii panjsola dar asosi surati balandi tarakqii is- tehsoloti sotsialist, behtar karda­ni mahsulnokii on va tezondani surati afzoishi hosilnokii meh­nat khele baland bardoshtani dara­jai moddiyu madanii zindagii khalq bud.

Plan programmai mukammalu harchonibai afzoishi darajai nekuahvolii moddiyu madanii mehnatkashon, bo rohi ziyod kardani haqqi mehnat va muzddihi az hisobi fondhoi istemolii jamiyat ziyod namudani daromadi aholi, behtar namudani sharoiti manzil, behtar kardani taminoti moddii oilahoi serfarzand, nafaqakhuronu studenton, tashkili durusti mehnati zanoni kudakdor, ziyod kardani sohahoi khizmatrasoni, inkishofi sistemahoi nigahdorii tandurusti, istirohati mutashakkilonai mehnatkashon, taraqqii hamatarafai maorifi khalq, va madaniyati sotsialisti, anjom do­dani guzarish ba malumoti miyonai umumi, nazdik namudani darajai zindagii aholii shahru dehotro peshbini namud. Dar plan ba taraqqii sohahoi nav — moshinsozii sohai atom, istehsoli vositahoi avtomatoni va tekhnikai hisobbaror diqqati kalon doda shud. Shakli navi musobiqahoi sotsialisti — planhoi istikboli ba vujud omad.

Dar davomi panjsola (1971—75) daromadi milli 28%, mahsuloti sa­noati 43%, hajmi solonai mahsuloti khojagii qishloq nisbat ba panjsolai guzashta ba hisobi miyona 15% afzud. Ba khojagii khalq beshtar az 500 miliard sum peshbini shud. Fondhoi asosii istehsoli 1,5% afzud. Taqriban 1700 korkhona va obekthoi sanoati, inchunin shumorai ziyodi sekhu sohahoi korkhonahoi amalkunanda ba kor daromadand. GES-i Krasnoyarsk (iqtidorash 6 Git), 3avodi avtomobilhoi sa- bukravi Volga, avvalin dar jahon stansiyai elektrii atomii doroi neytronhoi bosurat, dar 3avodi me­tallurgii Krivoy Rog pechi domnagii zarfiyatash 5009 metr3 sokhta shudand. Sokhtmoni kompleksi korkhonahoi istehsolkunandai avtomobilhoi borkash (KamAZ), magistrali rohi ohani Baykalu Amur (BAM) va bisyor korkhovayu obekthoi kaloni digar cap shud.

Istehsoli ziyoda az 15 hazor navi mahsuloti sanoati ba roh monda shud. Darajai tekhniki va sifati mahsulot, az jumla molhoi istemolii khalq baland gardid, qismi ziyodi mahsulot Nishoni davlatii sifat girift. Strukturai istehsoloti sanoati behtar gardid. Soli 1975 hissai mahsuloti moshinsozi, sanoati khimiya va elektroenergetika nazar ba 31%-i soli 1970 to 35% ziyod shud. Dar in solho istehsoli nurihoi minerali 1.6 barobar afzuda, soli 1975-um ba ziyoda az 90 million tonna rasid. Zifti suni va plastmassa 49%, nakhhoi khimiyavi 42%, asbob va vositahoi avtomatoni beshtar az 2, vositahoi tekhnikai hisobbaror 4,3, dastgohhoi metallburi 2,8 barobar afzud. Istehsoli energiyai elektr ba 1039 milliard kiloVatt-soat, pulod 141 million tonna,   sement 122 million tonna, neft 491 million tonna, gaz 289 milliard metre rasid. Dar taraqqii istehsoli molhoi istemolii khalq peshravihoi kulli ba dast omad. Is­tehsoli matohoi pakhtagin ba 6635 million metr2, poyafzoli charmin 698 million juft, soat 55 million, radiopriyomniku radiola 8376 hazor, yakhdonho 5606 hazor, avtomobilhoi sabukrav 1201 hazor (yo 3,7 barobar); rasid.

Istehsoli molhoi khimiyai maishi 42%, masolehi khurokvori 37%- afzud. Baroi jori kardani snstemahoi gunoguni avto­matikidorakuni va tashkili markazhoi hisobbaror korhoi ziyode anjom doda shudand. Dar okhirhoi panjsola ziyoda az 2328 sistemai av­tomatii idorakuni (ASU) va 2600 markazi hisobbaror kor mekard. Ba- robari afzoishi istehsoli mahsulo­ti sanoati sifati onho behtar va istehsoli navhoi navi mahsulot ba roh monda shud. Dar in solho 14,2 hazor navi navi mahsuloti sanoati az khud va baroi omma istehsol kar­da shud, 5,8 hazor namunai kuhnai mah­sulot az istehsolot baromad. Ba 23,3 hazor navi mahsulot Nishoni davlatii sifat doda shud. Baroi baland bardoshtani darajai moddi va madanii zindagii aholi tadbirhoi ziyode andeshida shudand. Daromadi reali ba har sari aholi 24% afzud, muzdi mehnati beshtar az 75 million kas ziyod gardid. Az hisobi ziyod kardani nafaqa, yordampuli va stipendiya da­romadi taqriban 40 million kas ziyod shud. Pardokhti peshazmuhlati obligasiyahoi zayomhoi davlati ogoz yoft. Daromadi milli ba har sari aholi ziyoda az 19%’ afzud. Dar 544 million metr* manzil sokhta shud, ki dar natijai in sharoiti zipdagii taqriban 45 million kas behtar gardid. Malumoti miyonai umumi jori shud.

Dar taraqqii khojagii respublikahoi ittifoqi muvaffakiyathoi kalon ba dast omad. Iqtisodiyoti nohiyahoi shimoli mamlakat ru ba taraqqi nihod. Sohahoi energetikii sanoat, sanoati metallurgiyai siyohu ranga, khimiya, jangal, korkardi chub, sellyulozayu kogaz, khojagii qishloq misli sohahoi gallakori, pakhtakorivu chorvodorii in rayonho bo surati baland taraqqi kardand. Dar Sibiri Fapbi bazai kalontarini neft sokhta shud. Sokhtmoni azimi BAM ogoz yoft va anjomi on baroi taraqqii minbadai iqtisodiyoti Sibiri Sharqi va Sharqi Dur istifodai zakhirahoi boi tabii zami­nai mustahkamest.

Plani panjsolai dahum (1976—80) dar asosi rohhoi asosii taraqqiyoti khojagii khalqi SSSR tartib doda shud va onro Sezdi 25-umi Partiyai Kommunistii Ittifoqi Soveti KPSS tasdiq namud. Vazifai asosii panjsolai 10- um sobitqadamopa pesh giriftani rohi Partiyai Kommunisti dar bobati dar zaminai tarakqiyoti dinamiki va mutanosibi istehsoloti jamiyati va ziyod kardani samarai on, tezondani progressi ilmiyu tekhniki, ba­land bardoshtani hosilnokii mehnat, dar hamai sohahoi khojagii khalq hamajoniba behtar namudani sifati kor baland bardoshtani darajai moddiyu madanii khalq bud.

Panjsolai 10-um davrai navi muhimmi barpo kardani bazai moddiyu tekhnikii kommunizm, takmili munosibathoi jamiyati va tashakkuli odami nav, taraqqii tarzi zindagii sotsialisti hisob meyoft. In davrai purzur kardani intensivonii istehsoloti jamiyati, istifodai purrai imkoniyathoi khojagii khalq baroi afzungardonii sarvathoi milli, baroi mustahkam namu­dani iqtidori iqtisodi va qobiliyati mudofiavii mamlakat bud. Dar panjsolai 10-um niz, misli panjsolahoi guzashta, ba minbad ham taraqqi dodani sohahoi gunoguni sanoat, khojagii khalq diqqati jiddi doda shud. Istehsoli mahsuloti sa­noat dar panjsola 35—39%, az jumla vositahoi istehsolot 38—42% va molhoi istemoli 30—32%, hosil­nokii mehnat dar sanoat 30—34% ziyod gardid.

Hosilnokii mehnati korkunoni sanoat az hisobi pro­gressi ilmu tekhnika khele afzud. Dar davomi solhoi 1976— 78 istehsoli ziyo­da az 10 hazor navi mahsuloti sanoat ba roh monda shud. Okhirhoi soli 1980 fondi asosii istehsolot az 1 trillion sum guzasht. Istehsoli energiyai elektr ba 1295 milliard kiloVatt-soat rasid, sokhtmoni stansiyahoi elektrii olavi va atomi davom doda, stansiyahoi elektrii olavii Ekibastuz, Kansko-Achinsk sokhta shu­dand. Kori barpo namudani siste­mai yagonai energetii Sibir va Osiyoi Miyona bo sokhtani khathoi elektr- guzaroni 500, 750 va 1150-volta da­vom yoft. Hosilnokii mehnat dar sohai elektroenergetika 27—29% afzud. Soli 1980 istehsoli neft (yakjoya bo kondesati gaz) ba 603 million tonna rasid. Hosilnokii mehnat dar sanoati neft 28—30% afzud. Dar sanoati neftkorkuni hajmi korkardi neft 25—30%, istehsoli benzinhoi seroktan, suzishvorii dizeli, ravganhoi alosifat ziyod shud. Soli 1980 istehsoli gaz ba 435 milliard metr’* rasid, 35 hazor kilometr gazoprovod ba kor andokhta, istifodai kompleksii sis­temai yagonai tamini gaz dar Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR ba vujud ovarda shud. Hosilnokii mehnati in soha (43—45% afzud. Okhiri panjsola istehsoli angisht ba 716 million tonna rasid. Konhoi mavjudai angisht taraqqi va korhoi zudtar barpo namudani kompleksi suzishvorii energetikii Kansko- Achinsk vusat yoft.

Dar sanoati sabuk istehsoli mah­sulot 26—28%’ afzud. Soli 1980 isteh­soli mato ba 10,7 milliard metr2, masnuoti trikotaji ba 1623 million adad ra­sid. Istehsoli matoi nobofta 3,4— 3,5, qolinu poyandoz 2,1 barobar, is­tehsoli khelhoi navi gazvor, libos, masnuoti trikotaji va duzandagi, poyafzol, masnuot az muinai tabii va suni va navhoi onho afzud. Istehsoli molhoi madaniyu ruzgor 1,6 barobar ziyod shud. Miqdori yakhdonhoi yak va serkamerai zarfiyatashon to 300 litr, kondisionerho, televizorhoi ranga va sayyor, radioyu ra­diola, moshindor gunoguni ruzgor afzud.

Xojagii qishloq, talaboti aholiro az khurok­vori va sanoatro az ashyoi khom qone gardonda, boz ham taraqqi kard. Hajmi miyonai solonai istehsoli mahsuloti khojagii qishloq nazar ba panjsolai guzashta 14—17% afzud. Soli I960 mah­suloti khojagii qishloq 121,2 milliard sumro tashkil namud, ki on az istehsoli miyonai solonai panjsolai 9-um 13% ziyod ast. Soli 1960 gallakoron ba anbori mamlakat 189,1 million tonna galla rekhtand. Dehqonon solhoi 1961—65 ba davlat sole 130,3 million tonna galla, 4,99 million  pakhta dodaand, in nishondihandaho solhoi 1976—80 muvofiqai ba 205; 8,93 million tonna rasid. Soli 1980 istehsoli solonai pakhta ba 9,96 million tonna, lablabui qand ba 79,6 million tonna rasonda shud. Melioratsiyai zamin behtar gardid; 4 million gektar zamin obyori, 4,7 million gektar zamin khushkonda, 37,6 million gektar charogoh obshor karda shud. Mablagguzori ba khojagii qishoq ba 170 milliard  sum rasid. Dar davomi panj sol khojagii qishloq 1,8 million traktor, 1,3 million avtomobili borkash, qarib 540 hazor kombayni galladarav, 1580 prisepi traktor girift. Soli 1980 khojagii qishloq 111 milliard  kiloVatt-soat energiyai elektr istemol namud, parki traktorho ba 2562 hazor, parki avtomobilhoi borkash ba 1596 hazor adad, miqdori nurin minerali ba 82 million tonna, zaminhoi obi va khushkonida boshad. ba 35 million gektar rasid.

Naqliyot baroi qone gardonidani talaboti khojagii khalq va aholi, behtar namudani aloqahoi naqliyotii bayni nohiyahoi iqtisodii mamlakat sohai muhim ast. Dar davomi panjsola haqmi borkashonii hamai navhoi naqliyot taqriban 30%*, passajirkashonii naqliyoti istifodai umum 23% afzud. Beshtar ba taraqqii naqliyoti rohi ohan va behtar kardani kori on diqqat doda shud. Dar davomi panjsola 3,5 hazor kilometr rohhoi navi ohan sokhta, naqliyoti bahri, daryoi, truboprovodi, avtomobili va havoi takmil doda shud. Soli 1980 hajmi borkashonii naqliyoti trubopro­vode (neft va mahsuloti on) 1196,8 milliard, naqliyoti avtomobilii khojagii khalq 432,3 milliard, naqliyoti ha­voi (yakjoya bo pochta) 3.09 milliard tonna-killometrro tashkil namud. Agar hajmi borkashonii hamai namudhoi naqliyoti istifodai umum soli 1970 3829, 2 milliard tonna-kilometr va passajirkashonii hamai namudhoi naqliyoti istifodai umum 553,1 passajir-kilometr boshad, pas soli 1980 in nishondihanda mutobiqan 6165,3; 891,1 bud. Soli 1980 miqdori korkhonahoi aloqa (pochta, telegraf va telefon) az 11 hazor (1913) ba 91 hazor rasid. Okhiri soli 1980 dar mamlakat jam 29,1 million apparati tele­fon kor mekard.

Iqtisodiyoti hamai respublikahoi ittifoqiyu avtonomi niz khele taraqqi kard. Surati afzoishi hajmi umumii mahsuloti sanoati Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii  Tojikiston soli 1978 nisbat ba soli 1913-um 138 barobar va nisbat ba soli 1970-um 51 marotiba afzud. ‘

Dar davomi panjsolai 10-um pro­grammai azimi taraqqii ijtimoi va boz ham behtar kardani zindagii khalq ijro gardid. Dar panjsola muzdi miyonai kori korgaron va khizmatchiyon 16—18% ziyod shuda, dar okhiri panjsola ba 168,9 sum rasid. Daromadi kolkhozchiyon niz az khodjagii jamiyatii kolkhozho ba hisobi miyona 24—27%, yordampuli va imtiyozdihi ba aholi az hisobi fondhoi jamiyatii istemol 28—30% ziyod shud. Daromadi realii korgaronu khizmatchiyon ba hisobi yak korkun soli 1980 nisbat ba soli 1940-um 4 barobar, daromadi realii kolkhoz- chiyon 6,9 marotiba afzud. Soli 1980 da­romadi reali ba hisobi dar yak kas nisbat ba soli 1979-um 3,5% ziyod shud. Agar muzdi kori korgaronu khizmatchiyoni sohahoi khojagii khalh soli 1965- um 90,5 sum boshad, pas soli 1980 vay ba 168,9 sum rasid. Muzdi miyonii kor bo yakjoyagii yordampuli va imtiyozho az fondhoi jamiyatii is­temol soli 1980 ba 232,8 sum rasid. Muomiloti moli savdoi chakanai davlati va kooperativi 27—29%, hajmi adoi khizmati maishii aholi 1,5 barobar, az jumla dar dehot 1,7 barobar ziyod gardid.

Solhoi 1976—80 sokhtmoni manzil khele inkishof yoft. Dar panjsolai 10-um ba masohati umumii 530 million metr* manzil sokhta shud va in imkon dod, ki sharoiti manzili 50 million kas behtar karda shavad. Solhoi 1980-um 80%-i sokinoni shahrho dar kvartirahoi alohida zindagi mekardand. Davlat ba sohai tandurusti soli 1940- um 0,9 million sum sarf karda boshad, pas soli 1978 in mablag ba 13,5 milliard sum rasid. Dar Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialistii SSSR az se yak qismi dukhturoni jahon (soli 1980-um 995,6 hazor) kor mekunand, ba har 10 hazor kas taqriban 36 nafar dukhtur rost omad. Soli I960 shumorai umumii kathoi bemorkhonaho ba 3,3 million rasid, dar shahru dehot, posyolkaho ambulato­riyayu) poliklinika, dorukhona va kasalkhonahoi nav sokhta shudand.

Sis­temai maorifi khalq muvofiqi progressi ilmu tekhnika va zamon minbad inkishof yoft. Baroi kamash 7 million  nafar talaba, az jumla dar dehot baroi taqriban 4,5 million nafar khonanda maktabhoi navi malumoti umumi sokhta shudand, qabul ba omuzishgohhoi kasbhoi tekhniki 2 ba­robar ziyod va tavassuti in sistema 11 million nafar korgaroni ikhtisosnok tayyor karda shud. Alhol 77%-i stu- dentoni ruzkhoni maktabhoi oli va 72%-i khonandagoni omuzishgohhoi miyonai makhsus stipendiya megirand. Dar soli khonishi 1979/80 dar mak­tabhoi SSSR 100,2 million nafar mekhond. Maktabhoi oli va miyonai makhsusro khudi hamin sol 2092 hazor nafar khatm kardand. Dar davomi solhoi panjsola 9,9 million nafar mutakhassisoni doroi malumoti oli va miyonai makh­sus tayyor karda shudand.

Ba tufayli ijroi programmahoi panjsolai 10-um iqtidori siyosi, iqtisodi va harbii Davlati Soveti afzud, dunyoi manavii odami so­veti boz ham boytar, tarzi zindagii sotsialisti ustuvor gardid.

Plani panjsolai 10-um az planhoi panjsolai guzashta bo on farq mekard, ki hachmu miqyosi korho khele kalon bud, hamai sohahoi khojagii khalq muntazam taraqqi kard, programmai azimi ijtimoi ijro, balansi khojagii khalq behtar, strukturai idorakuni mukammal va siyosati agrarii partiya amali gardid. In panjsolai sifat va Samara bud.

Plani panjsolai yozdahum az»rui rohhoi asosii taraqqiyoti iqtksodi va ijtimoii Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti SSSR dar solhoi 1981—85 va dar davrai to soli 1990 tartib doda shud va onro Sezdi 26-umi Pratiyai Kommunistii Ittifoqi Soveti KPSS tasdiq namud. Vazifai asosii panjsolai  11-um minbad ham baland bardoshtani darajai nekuahvolii odamoni soveti dar asosi taraqqiyoti bardavomu puravji khojagii khalq, tezonidani progressi ilmiyu tekhniki va guzaronidani iqtisodiyot ba rohi rivoju ravnaqi bosurat, oqilonatar va durusttar istifoda burdani nerui istehsolii mamlakat, harjoniba sarfa kardani hamai zakhiraho va behtar namudani sifati kor meboshad.

Dar pandsolai 14-um taraqqiyoti hamatarafai hama sohahoi sanoat peshbini shudaast. Istehsoli mahsu­loti sanoat dar panj sol 26—28%, az on jumla vositahoi istehsolot 26—28% va molhoi istemoli 27— 29% meafzoyad. Hosilnokii mehnat dar sanoat 23—25% baland bardoshta meshavad. Dar elektroenerge­tika soli 1985 ba 1550—1600 milliard kiloVattsoat, az on jumla dar stansiyahoioi elektrii atomi ba 220—225 milliard kiloVatt-soat va stansiyahoi elektrii obi ba 230— 235 milliard kiloVatt-soat rasonidani energiyai elektr peshbini shudaast. Sokhtmoni stansiyahoi elektrii olavi davom doda, navbati yakumi khatti elektrii jarayoni doimii Ekibastuz — Markaz (shiddatash 1600 kilovatt) va khatti elekt­rii jarayoni tagyiryobandai Ekibas- tuz— Ural (shiddatash 1150 kilovatt) ba kor andokhta meshavand. Hosilnokii mehnat dar sohai elektroenergeti­ka 18—20%’ meafzoyad. Soli 1985 isteh­soli neft (yakjoya ba kondensati gaz) ba 6(20—645 million tonna merasad. Sa­noati istikhroji neft dar nohiyahoi Sibiri Garbi, Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Qazoqiston  va shimol. Qismi evropoii mamlakat bosurat taraqqi meyobad, konhoi navi neft ba kor medaroyand. Soli 1985 istehsoli gaz ba 600—640 milliard metr3 rasonida. gazoprovodi puriqtidori ba dara­jai baland avtomatikonida va baroi istifodai magistrali etimodnok sokhta meshavad. Hosilnokii mehnati in soha 33—35% meafzoyad. Okhiri panjsola istehsoli angisht ba 770— 800 million tonna merasad. Dar Kuzbass barpo namudani iqtidorho, sokhtmoni obekthoi komplekshoi suzishvoriyu energetikii Kansko-Achinsk va Ekibastuz vusat meyobad.

Dar sanoati sabuk istehsoli mahsulot 18—20%* ziyod meshavad. Is­tehsoli molhoi madaniyu ruzgor ka­mash 1,4 barobar ziyod shuda, sifati onho khele behtar megardad.

Dar khojagii qishloq baroi taraqqiyoti bo­surat, afzun gardonidani samarai hamai sohaho, beshtar istehsol kar­dani mahsulot va behtar gardidani sifati onho diqqati jiddi doda meshavad. Dar davomi panjsola is­tehsoli miyonai solonai mahsuloti khojagii qishloq 12—14%’, hosilnokii mehnat dar khojagii jamiyati 22—24%- me­afzoyad. Istehsoli miyonai solonai galla ba 238—243 million tonna, pakhta ba 9,2 – 9,3 million tonna, lablabui qand 100— 103 million tonna, gusht ba 17—17,5 million tonna, shir ba 97—99 million tonna, tukhm kamash ba 72 milliard dona, pashm ba 470—430 hazor tonna merasad. Meliorasiyai zamin inkishof meyobad:) 3,4—3,0 million gektar zamini obi va 3,7—3,9 million gektar zami­ni khushkonda ba kor andokhta, dar biyobonho, nimbiyobonho va kuhsor 26—28 million gektar charogoh, obshor karda meshavad. Xojagii qishloq soli 1985 kamash 115 million tonna nurihoi minerali, 5 million tonna moddahoi ilovagii khimiyavii khuroki chorvo, 650—680 hazor tonna vositahoi samarabakhshi muhofizati rastani, dar panjsola 1870 hazor traktor, 1450 hazor avtomobili borkash, 600 hazor kombayni galladarav va digar tekhnikai khojagii qishloq megirad. Bo energiyai elektr tamin budani mehnat dar khojagii qishloq 1,4—1,6 barobar ziyod meshavad.

Dar davomi panjsola ziyod kardani samara va baland bardoshtani sifati kori sistemai naqliyot peshbiny shudaast. Solhoi 1981—85 ka­mash 5 hazor kilometr rohi ohani duyum ba istifoda doda, besh az 6 hazor kilometr rohi ohan elektrikonida, ziyoda az 15 hazor kilometr rohi ohan bo blokirovkai avtomati va sentralizasiyai dispetcheri tadkhi- zonida, Kamash 3,6 hazor km rohi ohani nav sokhta meshavad. Borkashonii naqliyoti rohi ohan 14—45%, passajirkashoni 9%, hosilnokii mehnat 10—12% meafzoyad. Naqliyoti bahri, daryoi, truboprovodi, avtomobili va havoi takmil meyobad. Borkashonii naqli­yoti avtomobilii istifodai umum 1,4 barobar, passajirkashonii avtobushoi istifodai umum 16— 18%, passajirkashonii naqliyoti havoi taqriban 1,3 barobar ziyod megardad. Dar davomi panj sol masofai ka­nalhoi baynishahrii telefon taqriban 1,8 barobar daroz karda meshavad.

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