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Peru

Peru (Reru), Respublikai Peru (Republica del Peru), davlatest dar qismi garbii Amerikai Ja­nubi. Dar Sh.arqu Garb bo Ekvador, dar Shimolu Sharq bo Kolumbiya, dar Sharq bo Braziliya va Boliviya, dar Janub bo Chi­li hamsarhad ast. Dar Garb va Janubu Garb onro uqyonusi Orom ihota namudaast. Masohatash 1285 hazor km2. Aholiash 17,76 mln (1981). Poytakhtash — shahri Lima (4,3 mln aholi, 1978). Az jihati mamuri ba 23 departament va I muzofot taqsim shudaast.

Sokhti davlati. Peru— respublika. Dar natijai intikhoboti umumi (18 mayi 1980) 28 iyuli 1980 dar Peru tarzi hukumatdorii konstitutsioni barqaror gardid. Sardori davlat va hukumat prezident, ki onro aholi ba muhlati 5 sol intikhob mekunad. Or­gani olii qonunbaror — kongressi dupalatagi. Organi ijroiyaro prezi­dent va Soveti Vaziron ba amal mebarorand.

Tabiat. Territoriyai Peru ba 3 qijm judo meshavad: mintaqai hamvori nazdisohili (Kosta, barash 80—180 km) — dar Garb; kuhsor (Serra) — dar markaz; beshazori sernam va hamvoriho (Selva) dar Sharq Qarib 1/3 qismi territoriyai Peru kuhsor ast. Kuhhoi Andi Peruro vodiho ba qatorkuhhoi Kordileri Garbi, Kordileri Markazi va Kordileri Sharqi judo kardaand (nuqtai balandtarin — kuhi Uaskaran, 6768 m). Dar kuhhoi Kordileri Garbi vulqonhoi amalkunanda va khomushshuda mavjudand. Selva nisfi territoriyai mamlakatro ishgol mekunad.

Iqlimi nohiyai Kosta va nishebii kuhhoi And boyobonist, harorati miyonai mohona dar sohilho az 15°S to 25°S. Iqlimi Serra balandkuhi, tobistonash sernami subekvatori (borishoti solona to 1000 mm) va dar Janub tropi­ki (borishot 700—800 mm). Daryohoi kalontarin — Maranon, Ukayali ba havzai daryoi Amazonka mansuband. Kuli kalontarin — Titikaka. Dar sohil va nishebii kuhhoi And buttazori sirak va kaktus meruyad. Dar nishebihoi sharqi And va hamvorihoi Selva jangalhoi hameshasabzi namnok voqeand, ki darakhtoni qimatbaho dorand.

Az hayvonot palang, ruboh, gurbai kaloni vahshi, maymunhoi gunogun, murjakhur, inchunin khazandagonu hasharot mavjudand. Parranda bisyor ast. Soli 1966 baroi muhofizati Hayvonot bogi millii Lampa-de- Galeras kushoda shud.

Aholi. Taqriban nisfi aholi perugihoand, boqimonda hinduyoi, yaponho, khitoiho, ispaniho va digaron. Zabonhoi rasmi: ispani va kechua. Dini hukmron katolikist, Shahrhoi kalon: Lima, Arekipa, Kalyao, Trukhilo, Chiklayo, Pyura.

Ocherki tarikhi. Odam dar territoriyai Peru hanuz dar hazorai 8 to melod maskan karda bud. Dar okhiri hazorai 2—1 to melod qabilaho muttahid shudand. Dar hazorai 1 melod dar territoriyai hozirai Boliviya va janubi Peru davlati Tiauanako bunyod yoft.

Dar asri 15 konfederatsiyai qabilahoi hindu bo sardorii inkho qabilahoi hamvavor va digar davlathoro ba tasarrufi khud darovardand va davlati Tauantinsuyu ba vujud omad. Istilogaroni Ispaniya bo sar­dorii F. Pisarro va D. Almagro solhoi 1532—1936 territoriyai Tauantinsuyurs ishgol namudand. Qati nazar az in hinduyon bo rohbarii Tupaka Amaru muborizaro bar ziddi istilogaroi bevosita davom dodand. Peru soli 1543 ba hayati shohii Peru hamroh karda shud, ki on qismi kaloni Amerikai Janubiro muttahid karda bud. Mustamlikadoroni Ispaniya soli 1540 ba taqsimi zaminhoi Peru sar kardand. Inak, korolii Ispaniya dar Peru tarzi hayoti obshinagiro, ki dar zamoni inkho vujud dosht, mustahkam kard. Soli 1570 aholii Peru 1,5 mln nafar (az jumla 8 hazor nafar ispaniho) bud. Mustamlikadoroni Ispaniya territoriyai zabtkardaashonro ba manbai ashyoi khomi metropoliya tabdil dodand. Dar asri 16 bofandagi va manufaktura ba vujud omad. Dar asrhoi 17—18 asosi iqtisodiyoti mamlakatro sanoati metallurgiya tashkil medod. Dar konho gulomon-zangiyoni az Afrika ovardashuda kor mekardand. Asri 18 shurishi shahriyon va dehqonon bar ziddi mustamlikadoron ogoz yoft. Soli 1780 bo rohbarii X. G. Koidorkapki (zimni nomi Tupak Amaru) jangi dehqonon sar shud va to soli 1783 davom kard. Soli 1810 dar Peru jangi ozodikhohii ziddi mustamlikadoroni ispani sar zada, der davom kard va nihoyat ba Jangi grajdani tabdil yoft. Dar shuurishi ziddiispanii solhoi 1811—1813 asosan dehqononu hunarmandon ishtirok doshtand. Onho solhoi 1814—1815 tahti rohbarii peshvoi hinduyon M. Garsiya Pumakaua shurishro vusat dodand. Vatanparvaron bo yorni ar­miyam argentinki general San-Mar­tin va korpusi kolumbiyagii S. Bo­livar ba ispaniho va reaksioperoni Peru shikast dodand. Soli 1821 San- Martin istiqloliyati Peruro elon kard. Soli 1922 kongressi muassison konstitutsiyai nakhustini Peruro qabul namud. Badi dar nazdi Khunin va Ayakucho torumor gardidani mustam­likadoron (1824) Peru az zulmi ispaniho purra ozod shud. Soli 1825 qismi janubu-sharqii Peru, ki Perui Bolo nom dosht, ba respublikai mustaqili Bo­liviya tabdil yoft. Peru solhoi 1835—1839 dar hayati konfederatsiyai Peru va Boliviya bud. Prezident R. Kastilya dar miyonai asri 19 islohot guzarond va desyatinai kalisokhh bekor, gulomho ozod karda shudand, kodekshoi grajdanii jinoyati qabul va bisyor qonunhoi davrahoi mustamlikadori bekor karda shudand. Sokhtmoni rohi ohan, fabrikaho ravnaq yoft. Solhoi 60-um avvalin tashkilothoi ittifoqhoi  kasabai hunarmandon va korgaron ba vujud omadand. Badi jangi bayni Peru va Chili (1879—1883) muzofoti Taraipaka va departamenthoi Arina va Takna ba muhlati 10 sol ba ikhtiyorn Chili guzashtand (soli 1929 Takna ba Peru bargardonida shud, Arika dar dasti Chili mond). Peru dar davrai Jangi yakumi jahoni (1914—1918) siyosati betarafiro pesh girifta bud. Galabai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sotsialistii Oktyabr korgaron, dehqonon va tamomi vatanparvaroni Peruro ba muboriza ba­roi komilhuquqi va istiqloliyati milli hidoyat namud. Solhoi 1918— 1919 kuhkanon, bofandagon, korgaroni bandarho korpartoiho kardand, ki onho bazan ba zadukhurdi yaroqnok tabdil meyoftand. Muvofiqi konsti­tutsiyai soli 1920 sarvathoi zerizamini davlati elon shudand. Soli 1928 Partiyai kommunistii Peru (PKP) tashkil yoft. Bo rohbarii kommunis­ton Konfederatsiyai umumii mehnatkashon, Federatsiyai batrakon va gayra tashkil yoftand. Az ibtidoi Jangi duyumi jahoni (1939—1945) harakati ziddifashisti quvvat girift va hukumati M. Prado-i-Ugarteche majbur shud rejimi siyosiro demokrati gardonad. Solhoi 1943—1944 bo tashabbusi kommuniston Konfederatsiyai mehnatkashoni Peru, Assotsiatsiyai farhangii Peru — SSSR va Fronti demok­ratii milli tashkil yoftand. Soli 1948 general M. Odria (1948—1956) ba sari hokimiyat omad va ozodihoi asosii grajdaniro barham dod, faoliyati partiyaho va ittifoqhoi kasabaro man kard. Soli 1956 rejimi M. Odria barham khurd va ba sari hokimiyat boz M. Prado-i-Ugarteche omada, ozodihoi grajdaniro barqaror namud. Ittifoqhoi kasaba imkoniyat paydo kardand ozod amal namoyand. Oktbri 1968 harbiyoni vatanparvar ba sari hokimiyat omada, ba aznavsozihoi revolyutsioniyu ziddiimperialisti shuru namudand: konhoi neft, korkhonahoi sanoati madan ba ikhtiyori davlat guzashtand, shartnomahoi mo­nopoliyai khoriji bekor karda shu­dand; savdoi beruna, bank, sistemai puli, kommunikatsiya va aloqa ba tahti nazorati davlat guzasht. Soli 1969 islohoti obu zamin guzaronida shud. Qismi ziyodi sanoati vaznin davlati gardonda shud. Hukumati revolzotsionii harbi ba guzaronidani siyosati mustaqilonayu sulhjuyonai beruni shuru namud; bo Ittifoqi Soveti va digar mamlakathoi sotsialisti munosibathoi diplomati va iqtisodiyu madani barqaror namud. Oktyabri 1978 dar shahri Arekipa Konferensiyai 5-umi millii Assotsiatsiyai robitahoi farhangii Peru — Ittifoqi Soveti barguzor shud.

Partiyahoi siyosi va ittifoqhoi kasaba. Partiyai «A m a l i yo t i kh a l q» (AKh), tasisash 1956. Yak qismi burjuaziya va ziyoiyonro muttahid menamoyad. Partiyai khalqii khristiani (PKhKh), tasisash 1966. Partiyai rosti ashaddii maydaburjuazi. Partiyai khristianhoi Peru, tasisash 1931, to 1977 Partiyai khalqi nom dosht. Ifodakunandai manfiati burjuaziyai miyona va kaloni tijoratiyu sanoati Partiyai khristianhoi demokrat (PKhD), tasisash 1956, manfiati burjuaziyai miyonaro ifoda mekunad. Partiyai sotsia­listii revolyutsioni (LSR), tasisash 1976. Partiyai kommu­nistii Peru (PKP), tasisash 1928.

Konfederatsiyai umumii m e h n a t k a sh o ni Peru (KUMP), ta­sisash soli 1968. Konfederatsiyai mehnatkatoni Peru (KMP), tasisash 1944. M a r k a z i

i t t i f o q h o i k a s a b a i mehnatkashoni r e v o l yu ts i ya i Peru, tasisash 1972.

Khojagii qishloq. Maydoni kpsht va ziroathoi bisyorsola 2,3%, margzoru charogohho 21,4% territoiyai Peruro faro giriftaand. Pakhta, nayshakar, gandum, sholi, chormagzi zamini, tamoku meparvarand. Sabzavotkori, ziroati polizi, toku bogdori ravnaq dorand. Sohai muhimi khojagi chorvodorist. Gov, gusfand, lama va gayra parvarish mekunand. Peru soli 1980 (ba hisobi hazor sar) 3837 gov, 2156 khuk, 14473 gusfand dosht. Mohigiri taraqqi kardaast.

Sanoat. Dar Peru mis, nuqra, surb, ruh, madani ohan, mangan, surma, volfram, molibden, vismut, simobu tillo, angishsang istikhroj mekunand. Soli 1980 10 mlrd kVt s. quvvai elektr istehsol karda shud. GES- hoi kalon: Mantaro, Uinko. zavodhoi gudozishi metallhoi ranga va siyoh sofkorii neft, korkhonahoi sellyulozayu kogaz, sanoati bofandagi, khurokvori, khimiya, istehsoli masolehi binokori, kishtisozi, vasli moshinho mavjudand.

Naqliyot. Tuli rohi ohan taqriban 2,4 hazor km, rohi moshingard 58,5 hazor km. Tamomi borhoro bo naqliyoti bahri mekashonand. Bandarhoi asosi: San- Nikolas, Kalyao, Talara, Chimchote.

Nigahdorii tandurusti. Solhoi 70-um ba 1000 nafar aholi 41,3 nafar tavallud, 8,3 nafar favt va ba 1000 kudaki navzod 72,2 nafar favti kudakon rost meomad. Dar Peru kasalihoi siroyati, domana, sil, isholi khunin va gayra pahn shudaand. Soli 1972 dar Peru ziyoda az 300 kasalkhonai doroi 31,2 hazor kat, 255 poliklinika, 9 dispan­ser, 976 punkti tabobati va muassisahoi sanitari budand, ki dar onho 8 hazor dukhtur (1 dukhtur ba 2 hazor nafar aholi), 2,8 hazor dukhturi dandon, 2. hazor dorusoz, taqriban 15 hazor kormandi doroi malumoti miyonai tibbi kor mekardand.

Maorif. Dar Peru to soli 1972 chunin sistemai maorif vujud dosht: maktabhoi ibtidoii 6-solai hatmi (aa 6-solagi); maktabhoi miyonai malumoti umumi — kollejho (muhlati tahsil 5 sol); maktabu markazhoi talimi shabona; kollej va institutkhuhoi tekhniki, khojagii qishloq, va savdo (muhlati tahsil 5 sol). Solhoi 1970-um dar maktabhoi ibtidoi taqriban 2,7 mln, dar maktabhoi miyonai malumoti umumi 547,3 hazor, dar maktabhoi kasbhoi tekhniki 112,7 hazor talaba tahsil mekard. Qarib seyaki universitetho khususiand. Tahsil dar maktabhoi oli pulakist. Kalontarini universitetho davlatiand; Universiteti millii «San-Mar­kos» (Tasisash 1551), Universiteti millii injeneri (1955), Universiteti millii «San-Agustin» (1828). Solhoi 1970-um dar universitetho 125 hazor student mekhond.

Az soli 1972 dar sohai maorif islohot guzaronida meshapad, ki on kharakteri demokrati dorad va ba vazifahoi taraqqiyoti ijtimoiyu iqtisodi muvofiq ast. Sistemai navi talim jori karda shud: talimi tomaktabi (baroi bachagoni to 6-sola); talimi 9-solai asosii hatmi va bepul.

Dar Peru kitobkhonai milli (ta­sisash 1821), kitobkhonai millii Universiteti «San-Markos», kitobkhonai Universiteti millii injeneri, Muzei tarikh, Muzei millii madaniyati Peru, Muzei antropologiya va bostonshinosi va gayra mavjudand.

Matbuot, radio, televizion. Soli 1974 dar Peru besh az 560 nashriyai davri, az jumla 32 gazetai harruza mebaromad. Gazetahoi asosii harruza: «GGerua- no» («El Peruano»), az soli 1825; «Komersio» («El Comercio»), az soli 1839, «Kronika» («La Cronica»), az soli 1912; «Unidad» («Unidad»), az soli 1957, organi PKP. Iyuli 1974 qonun qabul karda shud, ki muvofiqi on tamomi organhoi matbuot zeri nazorati tashkilothoi jamiyati guzashtand. Dar Peru ziyoda az 200 radiostansiya hast. Shirkati hukumatii «Radio nasonal» (tasisash 1937) 5 ra­diostansiya dorad. Kalontarin shirkathoi radioshunavoni—«Radio Ame­rika» va «Radio Panamerika». Televizion soli 1958 tashkil shud.

Adabiyot. Adabiyoti Peru asosan ba zaboni ispani rivoj meyobad. Folklori on ba zabonhoi mardumi tahjoy — kechua va aymara vujud dorad. Namunai barjastai osori to davrai mustamlikadori — dramai khalqii

«Olyantay» (soli 1853 nashr shudaast), ki ba zaboni kechua ejod yoftaast, yake az behtarin asarhoi adabiyoti jahonist. Asrhoi 16—19 solnomahoi tarikhi ejod shudaand.

Navisandai barjastatarini okhiri asri 19 va ibtidoi asri 20 R. Palma (1833— 1919) — muallifi «Rivoyathoi Peru» (iborat az 12 qism, 1872—1915) meboshad. Avvali asri 20 dar adabiyoti Peru jarayonhoi modernizm, simvolizm va bad az Jangi yakumi jahoni avan­gardizm mamul budand. Solhoi 20-um va 30-yum asarhoe ofarida shudand, ki goyahoi kommunistiro tartib me­kardand. Shoiri namoyon, kommunist S. Valeho (1892—1938) va dar davrai Jangi duyumi jahoni S. Alegriya (1909—1967), X. M. Argedas (1913— 1969) dar mavzuhoi ijtimoi va siyosi asarho ofaridand.

Memori va sanati tasviri. Madaniyat dar territoriyai Peru az zamonhoi qa­dim rivoj yoftaast. Kuloli hanuz dar asri 12 to melod malum bud, Shahrhoi qadimai Peru mahallahoi rostkunja va kuchahoi tang, markazhoi madani, qala, kushku ibodatkhonaho, ahromho va digar inshootho doshtand. Az namunahoi sanati nafisai on to davrai mo guldonhoi sernaqshunigor, zarfhoi safolii guldor, matoi pashminu pakhtagin, qolinhoyu kashidahoi gulduzi, haykalchahoi tilloyu nuqra, niqobu asbobhoi zebu zinat boqi mondaand. Dar nimai 2- yumi asri 16 va nimai 1-umi asri 17 shahrhoi nav bunyod shudand, ki kuuchahoi rost doshtand. Khonahoi havlidor, kalisohoi khishtin va gayra bunyod gardidand. Dar nimai 2-yumi asri 17 va asri 18 uslubi barokkoi Peru inkishof yoft. Memorii asri 19 Peru dar payravii klassitsizmi fransavi va binosozii solhoi 1870-um dar raviyai eklektikai itoliyovi tashakkul meyoft.

Dar asri 19 rassomon I. Merino, F. Laso, K. Baka Flor, D. Ernandes ba maydon omadand. Dar asri 20 rassomon X. Sabogal, X. Kodesido, haykaltaroshon K. Sako, I. Poso dar asarhoyashon hayoti khalqi oddiro tasvir namuda, ananai milliro davom dodaand. Dar sanati tasvirii Peru ku­bizm, ekspressionizm, sanati abstrakti mamul bud.

Musiqi. Az zamonhoi qadim gimnhoi muqaddas, surudho-rivoyathoi tarikhi, surudhoi liriki, raqsho mamul budand. Az asbobhoi musiqi naqorahoi uankar, tinya, nay, karnayhoi gunogun va gayra hastand. Asbob­hoi asosii musiqii hozira: gitara, charango, arfa va gayra. Dar zamoni mustamlikadori musiqii kasbi az musikii kalisoi iborat bud. Dar ni­mai 1-umi asri 20 maktabi ohangsozii Peru tashkil yoft, ki namoyandagoni on dar zaminai folklori milli asarhoi musiqi ofaridand. Dar shahri Li­ma konservatoriyai milli, orkestri simfonii milli, teatri munisipali va dar shahrhoi kalon chand maktabi musiqi hast.

Teatr. Sanati teatrii Peru khususan pas az tashkil shudani davlati inkho ru ba taraqqi nihod. Chand navi namoishhoi teatri vujud dosht. Dra­mai khalqii «Olyantay», ki ba zaboni kechua navishta shudaast, shuhrat paydo kard. Dar davran mustamlikadori dramahoi dini, fojiavi va badho asarhoi mazhakavii dramaturgoni Ispaniya ba sahna guzoshta shudand. Dar okhiri solhoi 1940-um behtarin asarhoi sahnavii dar ruhiyai vatanparvari ofaridashuda ba maydon omadand. Qismi ziyodi teatrho dar shahri Lima voqest.

Kino. Ba navorgirii film dar Peru soli 1913 ogoz yoft. Kinematografiyai milli az nimai solhoi 30-yum tashakkul yoft. Kinoi Peruro filmhoi re­jissyor A. Robles Godoy «Kuhho sitora nadorand», «Devori sabz», «Sarob» va gayra mashhur gardonidand. Dar Peru ziyoda az 450 kinoteatr hast.

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