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Perspektivi

Perspektivi (frans. respective; az lot. rerspicio — purra mebinam), sistemai tasviri jismhoi se­chena dar hamvori yo dar yagon sath ast, ki sokhti fazoi va durii qismhoi judogonai onro az mushohid ba nazar megirad. Qoidahoi Perspektivaro ma­tematiki Yunoni Qadim Uklidus (Evklid) dar «Optika» nom asarash sharh doda shud. Olimonu memoroni italiyavi L. Giberti (1378—1455), L. B. Alberti (1404—1472), P. Fran­cheska (1416—1492), G. Ubaldi (1545— 1607) va rassomi nemis A. Dyurer (1471—1528) nazariyai Perspektivaro asosnok kardand. Leonardo da Vivchi (1452— 1519) asoshoi Perspektivai fazoi va J. De­zarg (1593—1662) tarzi tahlilii sokhtani Perspektivaro kashf namudand. Minbad Perspektiva dar jahorchubai geomegriyai tasviri inkishof yoft.

Bo maqsadi hosil kardani tasviri perspektivai yagon jism az nuqtai malumi fazo (markazi pers­pektiva) va az hamai nuqtahoi jism nurho guzaranda, dar sathe tasviri predmetro hosil mekunand. Nuqtahoi burishi nurho bo in sath tasviri perspektiviro medihand (rasm). K — hamvorii surat, T — hamvorii predmet, t1 t2  burishgohi in hamvorihost, ki asosi hamvorii suratro tashkil medihad, r — nuqtai asosii surat, s — nuqtai ist.

Perspektivai khathoi rosti parallel bo ham dar hamvorii surat yo berun az on dar khati ufuqii h1h2 burida meshavand. Dar asl khatooi rosti parallel dar napari mushooid chun khatooi rosti oamdigarro bu­rayda namudor megardand. Hamiv tavr, Perstektivaii tegahoi 1′ 2′ va 3′ 4′ dar nuqtai G1 va Perspektivai tegahoi 2′ 3′ va 1′ dar nuqtai G2 burida meshavand. Nuqtahoi G1 va G2 fokusi Perspektiva nom doshta, khathoi va SF1 va SF2 muvofiqan ba tegahoi 1 2 va 1 4 parallel guzaronda meshavand.

Perspektivai dar hamvorii K  hosilshudaro perspektivai khatti menomand. In namudi Perspektiva dar sanati memorivu rassomi beshtar mamul a st.

Agar hamvorii K-ro bo sathi silindri ivaz kunem, perspekti­va i manzaravi hosil meshavad, ki on dar oroishi dekoratsiyaho vase istifoda meshavad. Dar mavridi hamvorii K-ro bo sathi andaruni ku­ra ivaz namudai perspektivai  g u n b a z i hosil megardad.

Ad.: Barishnikov A. P., Perspek­tiva, 4 izd., M., 1955; Khoriya Teodo­ru, Perspektiva, Bukharest, 1964; K l i- mu khin A. G., Teni i perspektiva. M., 1967; Klimu khin A. G., Nachertatel­naya geometriya. M., 1978.

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