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Parmakunii zamin

Parmakunii   z a m i n, prosessi ba shakli mudavvar kandani chuquriho (parmachoq, shurf, bazan shurf va shakhtaho)-ro guyand. Parmakuni bo maqsadi omukhtani sokhti geologii qishri Zamin, justuju, inkishof va istikhroji sarvathoi zerizamini, inchunin tadqiqoti in­jeneriyu geologi guzaronida mesha-vad. Bo yorii afzori makhs us i Parmakuni naqbro batadrij kanda, jinsi kandashudaro ba berun merezand. Bazan ba devorhoi parmachoh gulbahoi muhofizro nasb karda, rogahoi bayni devoru gulbaro sementpush mekunand. Parmakuni du khel meshavad: mekhaniki (jinsro bo yorii afzoli parma mekanand) va g a y r i  m e kh a n i k i (jins ba tarzi termiki, tarkonish na gayra vayron karda meshavad). Parmakunii mekhaniki du khel ast: zarbati va charkhzananda.

Hangomi Parmakunii zarbati snaryadi parmakuni, ki az iskana va chand olatii digar iborat ast, ba jins bo zarb gutida, onro vayron mekunad. Snaryadro ba vositai simtanobi pulodi yo khud shtanga ba narmachoh me- furorand. Jinsi kandashuda bo obi naqb daromekhta, ba khamira (pulla) tabdil meyobad, ki onro bad bo no­vai makhsus ba berun barovarda merezand. Prosessi bo gulbahoi muhofiz mustahkam kardani devori par­machoh in tavr surat megirad: agar Parmakuni baroi justuchui ob guzaronida shavad, ba girdogirdi parmachoh pas az kandani chuqurii muayyane gulbahoi muhofiz meguzorand; hango­mi iktishofi konhoi poshkhurdai sarvatkhoi zerizamini boshad, avval gulbahoi muhofizro ba naqb kufta, soni ba korkardi jinshoi dokhili gulba shuru mekunand.

Dar vaqti Parmakunii charkhzavanda kandani jins yakbora dar tamomi masohati naqb davom mekunad. Iskanan charkhzanandae, ki ba nugi gulbai parmakuni shinonda shudaast, jinsro kafonda mayda mekunad. Va­le prosessi Parmakunii sutunchagi (kolonkagi) kame digartar ast: ba vositai tojparmae, ki dar nugash metinqalam yo khud almos dorad, jinshoi narm va yo sakhtro halqavor burida megirand. Jinshoi daruni sutuncharo, ki ba silindr monand buda, kern nom dorad, dar berun kholi karda, ba maqsadi tadqiqot istifoda mebarand. Bazan hangomi parmakunii jinshoi sakhtu matin ba zeri toj sochmai chuyani yo pulodiro rekhta, naqb mekanand. Jinsi mayda kardashuda (shlam)-ro ba vositai moeot (ob, mahlulhoi gili va silikati, ohankob, inchunin mahlulhoi neftdor, bazan emulsiya) berun merezand.

Parmachokhhoe, ki bo usuli sutunchagi kanda meshavand, 2—3 kilometr chuquri doshta, diametrashon to ba 150 millimetr merasad. Naqbi yaklukhtro asosan ba maqsadhoi tekhniki va istifodai sarvathoi zerizamini mekanand. Ba­roi istikhroji neftu gaz parmachohhoi az hama chuqur (to 8—9 kilometr) kan­da meshavand. Dar SSSR baroi omukhtani sokhti geologii mantiyai boloii Zamin bo yorii moshini «Uralmash- 15000» du parmachoh kanda istodaand, ki chuqurii har kadome to ba 15 kilometr merasad. In qabil chohhoro ba tavri amudi  mekanand. Bazan az yak chohi amudii kandashuda tahti kunjhoi gunogun (odatan dar qari bahr va mahalhoi relefashon murakkab) boz chand chohi moil mekanand, Parmakuni tarikhi baso qadim dorad.

Hanuz 4 hazor sol to milod misriyon ba­roi sokhtani piramidavu ahromho parma chohho kandaand. Khitoiyon niz 2 hazor sol pesh az in baroi giriftani namakobho az Parmakuni istifoda burdaand. Dar on jo parmachohhoi diametrashon 12—15 santimetr va chuquriashon 900 metr kofta meshudand. Dar Rossiya ham az parmachohho bori avval baroi giriftani namaki osh istifoda burdaand. Dar asri 12 dar nazdikii shahri Kost­roma konhoi namak mavjud budand va namakobkhoro avval ba vositai chokhho va somitar parmachohho berun meovardand. YOft shudani konhoi sershumori neft boisi rivoj yoftani Parmakuni gardid. Hozir baroi Parmakuni tajhizoti navtarini zamonaviro ba kor meba­rand.

Adabiyot: K u l i ch i kh l i N. I., V o z d-yaijenskkhy B. I., Razvedochnoe bure­nie M., 1966; Esin N. N., Pnevmati­cheskie mashini udarnogo deystviya dlya buregapya shpurov. Novosibirsk. 1978: Elektromagnitnie moloti, Novosibirsk. 1979.

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SAFIKOL

SAFIKOL, nigared, Sayfos.