Malumoti ohirin
Home / Gunogun / Payvand

Payvand

Payvand, transplantasiya, navda (qalamcha) yo mugja (chashmak)-i yak rastani (payvanddust)-ro ba di­garash (payvandtak) payvastan. Payvand yake az muhimtarin usulhoi afzoyashi nashvii rastani (nigared Afzoish) buda, dar jangalzori, toku bogdori, rastaniparvari va parvarishi niholu rastanihoi oroshi vase istifoda meshavad. Payvand baroi nigoh doshtani khususiyathoi navii rastanihoi bisyorsola; ivaz kardani payvandtak, ki ba sharoiti obu havoi mahal muvofiq nest yo ivaz kardani on bo payvanddusti khushhosil, ba sarmokasali va hasharot tobovar ahamiya­ti kalon dorad; baroi quvvat dodani sabzish yo sust kardani on; tezonidani gulu mevai nihol va gayra niz ba kor mebarand. Payvand az zamonhoi khe­le qadim malum ast. Istifodai Payvand az finikiyon ba karfgenihoyu yunoniho va badtar ba rimiho, az onho ba Fransiyayu mamlakathoi digari Evroiyon Garbi meguzarad. Sugdiho niz dar toku bogdori ba Payvand khele mohir budaand.

Dar dunyo ziyoda az 200 usuli P.ayvand malum buda, dar amal faqat 10—15 navi onro ba kor mebarand; in navho ba du guruhi asosi — m u g- japayvand va qalamchapa y va n d taqsim meshavand.

Mugjapayvand, pustpa yvand yo barg payvand, yake az usulhoi mamul Payvand buda, dar niholkhonaho acocan baroi ziyod kardani kuchati darakhtoni mevador va baze rastanihoi oroishi istifoda meshavad.

Khangomi mugjapayvand navda kam sarf shuda, nazar ba navhoi diga­ri Payvand sermahsul va korash osontar ast. Ba tufayli mugjapayvand nihol tez sabzida, bisyor umr mebinad. Dar sharoiti Tojikiston mugjapayvandro az 20 avgust to 30 sentyabr guzaronidan lozim ast. Agar mugjapayvandro barmahal (iyun—iyul) guzaronand, bazan mugja bedor shu­da, zimiston oseb mebinad. Agar mug- chapayvand der guzaronida shavad, on goh baroi durust vaslshavii payvandtaku payvanddust va inkishofi on vaqt kami mekunad.

Odatan ba­roi mugjapayvand niholi dusola va bazan navi tezsabzi niholi yaksola (uafsiash 6—10 millimetr)-ro intikhob mekunand. Mugchahoi kalonro ba nav­dai gafs va khurdashro ba navdai borik Payvast mekunand. 5—7 ruz pesh az mugjapayvand navdahoi pahluii qismi poyoni tanai payvandtakro to gardanai resha az shokhahoi pahlui toza karda, ba atrofash khok mekashand va baroi kovok shudani pusti tanaash ob memonand. Sipas, hangomi mugjapayvand khoki atrofi pay­vandtakro hamvor karda, tanaashro bo latta pok mekunand.

Qalamchahoro baroi mugjapayvand az tarafi oftobruyai darakht girif­ta, nuti onro, ki mugjaash sust in­kishof yoftaast, zud meburand. Nav­dai qalamcha (daroziash 30—40 santimetr, gafsiash na kamtar az 6 millimetr) boyad solim, murjahoyash rasida buda, naboyad az payvandtak gafs boshad. Qalamcharo dar arafai Payvand yo khudi ha­mon rgz tayyor mekunand va pahnaki bargi onro 6—8 millimetr bolo burida, faqat kame dumchai bargro (6—8 millimetr) boqi memonand. Qalamcharo to istifoda burdan dar arramaydai nam yo zarfi obdor nigoh medorand. Pro­sessi mugjapayvand dar rasmi 1 aks shudaast.

Pas az 1,5—2 hafta niholhoi payvandiro az nazar meguzaronand va payvandtaki nogiriftaro az sari nav mepayvandand. Bandhoi payvandtakhoi giriftaro kholi karda, khoki bekhashro kovok mekunand va andake ob memonand. Bahoron pesh az shiradavoni payvandtakro 7—-10 santimetr nikh guzoshta (baroi basgani navdai payvandi), bolotar az joi Payvand mebu­rand. Baroi on ki navdahoi payvandi az shamol nashikanand, onhoro bad az 6—8 santimetr sabzidan ba pikh mebandand. Ammo be istifodai pikh mugjapayvand Oson va sermahsul ast. Baroi in dar navbador bolo­tar az Payvand payvandtakro meburand. Mugchapayvandi mustaqilona na­zar ba navdahoi bastashuda khub me- sabzad.

            Qalamchapayvand, navdapayv a n d r o odatan navbahor (mohi mart) pesh az shiradavonii darakht meguzaronand. Qalamchapayvand asosan dar bogdori bo maqsadi ruyonidani navhoi behtarash buttavu darakhti mevador guzaronida mesha­vad. Navdahoro baroi qalamchapayvand tiramoh pesh az ogozi khunuki tayyor mekunand va to vaqti Payvand on­horo dar zerkandhoi salqin dar peg yo arramaydai nam nigoh medorand. Tajriba nishon medihad, ki qalam- chapayvand ‘az navdahoe, ki bahoron pesh az bedorshavii mugja tayyor kardaand, khele samarabakhsh ast. Usulhoi mamuli qalamchapayvand: iskanapayvand, fonapayvand, qundoqipayvand, naychapayvand, kuprukpayvand va gayra.

Iskanapayvand (rasmi 2) hangomi Payvandi payvandtaki gafs, masalan, dar vaqti takroran Payvand kardani da­rakhtoni mevador ba kor burda mesha­vad. Baroi in tanai payvandtakro meburand va bo fonai makhsus kundai onro ba chuqurii 5—10 santimetr mekafonand. Sipac, ba du pahluyash du dona qalamchai qismi poyonash taroshidaro meguzorand.

Fonapayvand yo shaqpayv a n d r o hangomi takroran payvastani nihol istifoda mebarand. Pahlui kundai niholro ba shakli fo­nai seruya meburand va ba joi on qa­lamchai tarafi poyonash bo hamon shakl taroshidaro meguzorand (rasmi 3).

Q u n d o q i p a y v a n d (rasmi 4) dar surati payvandtak az payvand- dust gafstar budan guzaronida meshavad. Baroi bo in usul Payvand kardan tanai payvandtakro ba yak taraf moil karda meburand, sipas pustlokhi tarafi balandi kundai payvand­takro az poyon ba bolo bo andake chu­bat burida megirand,  bad ba on qa­lamchai qismi poyonash ba hajmi joi taroshidashudai kunda barobarro burida meguzorand yo payvandtaku payvanddustro ba shakli zaboncha burida bo ham payvast mekunand.

Kuprukpayvand baroi az nobud shudan nigoh doshtani darakht, ki davrodavri pustlokhi tanaashon az yagon kasali — sukhtor yo hayvonot oseb didaast, ba kor burda meshavad. Joi osebdidai pustlokhro hamvor karda ba joyhoi luchash vari bogi yo rangi ravgani memonand. Sipas barobari joi osebdidai pustlokh qalamcha burida, har du tarafashro metaroshandu ba du tarafi osebnadidai pustlokhi payvandtak payvast mekunad (rasmi 5).

N a y ch a p a y v a n d. Bo in roh niholhoi pustlokhash gafs, ba monandi chormagz, pekan, kastona, tut va gayra Payvand karda meshavad. Pustlokhi tanai payvandtak va payvanddusti gafsiash yakkhelaro (barobar az bolo va az poyon) gird meburandu ohista tob medihand va az miyonaash chok karda megirand, sipas, ba joi on pustlokhi bo hamin usul judokardai payvanddustro meguzorand.

Pesh az bastani joi Payvand (qati na­zar az usuli Payvand) khub payvastan yo napayvastani kambiyi payvandtaku payvanddustro az nazar meguzaronand. Bo ham muvofiq omadani qabathoi kambiy baroi tez va khub vasl shudani boftaho sharti asosi meboshad. Baroi pechonida bastani joi Payvand plyonkai polikhlorvinili, lifi zirfun, nakhi zagir az hama khub ast. Baroi muuchapayvand onro ba darozii 20—30 santimetr (barash 1,1—1,5 santimetr) va baroi qalamchapayvand (vobasta ba gafsi yo borikii tanai payvandtak) daroztar meburand.

Adabiyot: Fetisov G. G., Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstao, Moskva, 1953; Stepanov S. N.. Plodovoy pitomnik, Moskva, 1959; Ga r n e r R., Rukovodstvo po privivke .kodovikh kultur, Moskva,         1962; Koles­nikov V. A., (va digar Plodovodstvo, Moskva, 1966; Kolesnikov V. A. (va digar). Praktikum po plodovodstvu, Moskva, 1971; Kudryaves R. P., Formirova­nie i obrezka plodovikh derevev, Moskva, 1976.

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

paralogizm

MUGOLATA

MUGOLATA (arabi ba galat andokhtan, gumroh kardan), paralogizm, khatoi mantiqii begaraz va gayrichashmdosht. Mugolata ba …