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Oprichnina

Oprichnina, oprishnina (az rusii qadim oprichniy —makhsus), sistemai chorabnnihoi favquloddai harbiyu mamuri va ijtimoiyu iqtisodii podshoh Ivani IV (Groz­niy) baroi mustahkam namudani hokimiyati mutlaqiyati markazonida shuda va barham dodani parokandagii feodali. Ivani IV barham zadani «oshubho»-ro maqsadi asosii Oprichnina medonist. Barobari jori kardani Oprichnina jazoi berahmonai oppozisiyai boyarhoyu knyazho va qatli omi begunohon cap shud.

Oprichnina parokandagii feodaliro barham doda, dar mamlakat zulmu istibdodi mutlaqiyatro purzur va mavqei takyagohi ijtimoii on (amaldoron, dvoryanho, zamindoroni miyonahol)-ro mustahkam kard. Oprichnina  ba poydor gardidani tartiboti krepostnoi musoidat namud. Oprichnina dar asrhoi 14—16 mafhumi makhsusi qismi mulki namoyandagoni sulolai knyazhoi buzurg, solhoi 1565—72 boshad “mulki shohon»-ro ifoda mekard.

Ba Oprichnina  dar qismi markazii mamlakat Mojaysk, Vyazma, Suzdal va gayra, dar Janubi Garb— Kozyolsk, Peremishl, Belyov, Medun va gayra, dar Shimol — Dvina, Velikiy Ustyug, Kargopol, Vologda va gayra dokhil meshudand. Dar Oprichnina  dumai oprichnini prikazhoi mo­liyavi — Chetho amal mekardand. Qushunhoi oprichnina to 5—6 hazor askar doshtand. Qismi boqimondai mamlakat zemshina nom girift. Bisyor feodaloni mahalli az territoriyai Oprichnina ronda shuda, zaminhoi onho va dekhqononi krepostnoy ba dvoryanho— oprichnikkho doda shudand.

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