Malumoti ohirin

Naqiza

Naqiza (az ar. — vid, muqobil), parodiya, yak nav osori adabi, teatri, musiqi va estradiro guyand, ki ba tarzi taqlidi maskharaomez sokhta meshavad. Az jihati mazhakaviyat Naqiza du nav ast; mutoibavi va hajvi. Dar Naqizai mutoibavi hazli rafiqona, nazari khayrkhoona ba asari Naqizashavanda ba nazar merasad. Dar Naqizai hajvi mohiyati goyavi va estetikii asari Naqizashavanda rad megardad.

Naqiza yak vositai muboriza ba muqobili kambudihoi ejodiyoti badei, hodisahoi nomaqbuli adabiyotu sanat, muboriza baroi mahorati adabi, tozagii zabon, yagonagii mundarija va shakli adabiyoti badeist. Naqizai sheru gazalho yake az shaklhoi malumu mashhuri on mebo­shad. Naqizakunanda vaznu shakli sheri Naqizashavanda, obrazho, kompozi­tsiya va tarzi tasvir, bazan hajmi onro rioya karda, misrahoi sust, zaboni sher, kalimahoi lahjavi, arkhaizmho, vositahoi badeii kuhna, takrorhoi bemavrid, mazmuni soddalavhonaro tanqid menamoyad. Bazan shoiron ba sheri khud Naqiza menavisand. Tarzi digari Naqizanavisi az nomi shoiri digar sher guftan ast. Jakobi Naqizaro naqizai naqiza meguyand.

Navisandai yunoni Gipponakt (vafot 530 to melodi) saromadi Naqiza shinokhta shudaast. Dar adabiyoti khalqhoi olam Naqizanavisi az qadimulayyom rasm gardida, imruz ham rivoj do­rad. Zamoni paydoishi Naqiza dar adabiyoti tojik aniq tain nagardidaast. Namunahoi komili in navi adabi dar ejodiyoti shoiri tojiki asri 12 Suzanii Samarqandi dida meshavand. Naqizaro dar ejodiyoti Abuishoqi Atima (asri 15). Vosifi (asri 16), Shohin, Savdo (asri 19) va digar niz mushohida namudan mumkin ast. Dar adabiyoti sovetii tojik Naqiza solhoi 20—30 (dar ejodiyoti Payrav Sulaymoni, M. Aminzoda, Suhayli va digar) rivoj yoftaast. «Namunai sherhoi Pay­rav» nom sheri Payrav Sulaymoni Naqizai asarhoi khudash meboshad:

Ey shoiri otashqalami bo qalami nav, savdogari Maskav,

Dar dashnai shikanjai tanqid zabarrav, aftoda ba tirgav.

Az zarbai tanqid damodam shuda behol, afsudavu pomol.

3-on act, ki khudro shumuri «kuru karu lol», tarsida zi janjol.

Hon, ey asari «Qursii khunin»-i tu khun- khun, ey shoiri majnun!

Jon khunu jahon khunu zamin khunu zamon khun, olam shuda gulgun…

Solhoi okhir dar in janri adabi shoironi tojik Bobo Hoji va Gulnazar quvvaozmoi menamoyand.

Adabiyot: Ta barov S., Payrav Sulaymo­ni (Ocherki hayot va ejodiyot), Dushanbe 1962;

Sadiev S., Suzani va muhiti adabii Samarqandi asri XII, Dushanbe, 1974.

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BOZGUY, shokhai soziyu ovozi dar maqom va maqomsaroi, takrori hameshanii yayak porchai ohang. Odatan dar …