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BOQILO

vicia_fabaBOQILO (Vicia faba yo Faba vulgaris), boqalo, boqli, yak nav ziroati lubiyoi. Tirreshai daroz (to 200 sm) dorad. Poyaash rost (150-200 sm), darunkholi. Bargash parshakli juft. Khushagulash sergul; gulash safed, gulobi, dar kanorhoyash doghoi siyoh dorad. Mevaash gilofaki 4- 6-tukhma (daroziash 4-10 sm; vazni 1000 dona tukhmash 300-800 g). Boqilo ziroati namtalab ast. Niholash ba khunukii 4—6°S tob meorad.

Boqilo asosan dar mamlakatkhoi Bakhri Miyonazamin, Avrupoi Garbi, Amriko, Afgoniston, Hinduston kisht mesha­vad. Dar Tojikiston onro dar zaminhoi obii VMKB (ba­roi don va khuroki chorvo; 1-1,5 hazor ga) mekorand. Boqlilo qarib 100 nav doshta, az ruyi ahammiyati khojagi ba 2 guruh (polizi va khuroki chorvo) judo meshavad. Boqiloi khuro­ki chorvo serbargu poya va rezadona ast. On ba miqdori ziyod safeda, angishtob va vitamin dorad. 1 kg doni Boqiloi khuroki chorvo, ba hisobi miyona, 1,15 vokhidi khuroki buda, az 237 g proteini hozim, 1,5 g Sa, 4 g R, I mg karotin va bargu poyai sabzash az 21 g proteini hozim, 2 g Sa, 0,5 g R, 20 mg karotin iborat ast. Boqiloro beshtar dar zaminhoi sernamu hosilkhez mekorand. Dar sharoiti VMKB az har ga 20-30 sentner don va 300-400 sentner bargu poyai sabz megirand. Kishti Boqilo khokro sernitrogen megardonad. Dar davrai gulshukuft daravidani Boqilo khoshoki khub medihad. Baroi rushdu inkishofi Boqilo (khususan ayyomi gulshukuft) namii farovon lozim ast. Dar surati kofi nabudani nam gulu gurakash merezad. Dar Badakhshon Boqiloro badi gandumu javi bahori mekorand. Baroi ruyondani hosili baland ba kishti Boqilo nurihoi organikiyu minerali, khususan fos­for andokhtan muhim ast. Nigohubini kishti Boqilo misli nigohubini lubiyo va mosh meboshad. Dar davrai nashunamo ba boqilozor 5-6 marotiba ob medihand. Gilofakhoi Boqilo barobar merasand, az in sabab, onro barobari siyoh shudani gilofakhoi poyoni va miyona jam ovardan lozim ast. Agar gilofakho sarosar dar yak vaqt rasand, onro bevosita bo kombayn jam ovardan imkon dorad. Boqiloi polizi mevavu (gilofak) doni kalon dorad. Beshtar dar tarkibi taom va konserva istifoda mekunand. Niholi Boqilo az shirincha, gambusaki nuldaroz, nakhudkhurak va kasalihoi askokhitoz, mikrosporioz, karra, zanga, serkosporoz, garda va gayra zarar mebinad.

Tabiboni qadim Boqiloro ba sifati gizoi parhezi va vositai davoi baroi tabobati bemorihoi uzvhoi hozima, iltihobi rohhoi boloii nafas kor mefarmudand, bo on khunpartoi va surfaro tabobat mekardand.

Boqilo dar tibbi khalqi ba sifati davoi isholovar va bod­ron istifoda meshavad. Hangomi qabziyat ordobai Boqilo yo murabboi gilofaki onro tavsiya medihand. Marhami az ordi Boqilo tahiyakardaro ba jarohat, dogi kunjidak va khunomos mebandand, bo bandinai gilofaki on omoshoi sina (mastit) va bugumhoi dardmandro tabobat mekunand.

Dar tibbi muosir gulu tukhmu gilofaki Boqilo istifoda meshavad. Doni Boqilo peshobro meronad, tasiri afisi va ziddiiltihobi dorad. Naqe va jushobi gilofaki on baroi iloji diabeti qand mufid ast. Bo doni pukhtai Boqilo surfa, bemorihoi jigar, gurda va rohi medavu rudaho tabobat karda meshavand. Doni dar shir pukhta va sipas soida maydakardai onro ba zakhmi pust va puchak guzoshta mebandand.

Istemoli Boqilo dar mavridi bemorihoi medavu ruda ziyon doshta, boisi sar zadani qabziyat va bodi shikam me­shavad. Ashkhosi giriftori niqris va hepatitho niz boyad az istemoli on khuddori namoyand.

 A. Madaminov. A. Toshev.

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