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YaRMARKA

YaRMARKA, (az nem. lahrmarkt — solbozor, bozori harsoda), bozorest, ki muntazam dar vaqt va mahalli muayyan barpo meshavad; furushi mavsimii yak yo yakchand navi molro guyand. Ya. dar mamlakathoi Evropa ibtidoi asrhoi miyona ba vujud omadaast. A-hoi 10—11 dar natijai paydoishu tvraqqii shahrho, inkishofi istehsoloti hunarmandi, paydoishi bozori dokhili, vusati robitahoi tijoratii baynalkhalqi, ziyod shudani rohhoi khushkigardu vositahoi aloqa ahamiyati Ya.-ho boz ham afzud. Ya.-hoi kalontarin markazi savdoi baynalkhalqi budand. Dar asrhoi miyona Ya.-hoi Jeneva (avv. a. 15), Lion (a-hoi 15— 16), Antverpen (a. 16), Leypsig (a. 18) va g. dar hayoti iqtisodii Evropai Garbi mavqei muhim doshtand.

Dar davrai tashakkuli kapitalizm Ya. ahamiyati tijoratii peshtarai khudro gum kard, joi furushi bevositai molro avval furush va az rui namuna va bad furush muvofiqi standart girift. A. 19 Ya.-hoi kaloni yaklukhtfurushi ba namoishgohi Namunai molho tabdil yoftand, ki savdoyashon monandi savdoi birjakhon mol bud (nig. Birja). Ya.-ho universali (Ya.-hoi Plovdivi, Bulgoriya, Izmiri Turkiya), sersoha (a.-hoi Poznani Polsha va Pariji Fransiya) va makh sus (Ya.-hoi molhoi sportii Myunkheni RFG, tajhizoti naqliyotii Bazeli Shveysariya) meshavand. Faoliyati Ya.-hoi baynalkhalqiro Ittifoqi yarmarkahoi baynalkhalqi (IYaB), ki s. 1925 dar Parij tasis yofta bud, ba tartib meandozad.

Dar Rossiyai torevolyusioni avvalin Ya. dar miyonahoi a. 13 paydo shudaast. S. 1865 dar Rossiya 6,5 mln Ya. bud. Ya.-hoi Irbit va Nijniy Novgorod Ya.-hoi kalontarini Rossiya budand.

Dar Rossiyai Soveti s. 1922 guzaronidani Ya.-hoi umumiittofoqi, respublikavi ogoz yoft, ki kalontarini onho Ya.-hoi Boku va Nijniy Novgorod budand. Dar natijai inkishofi savdoi davlati va kooperativi, kollektivonii kh. q. Ya.-hoi khususi dar SSSR barham khurdand. Not. s-hoi 30 dar SSSR Ya.-horo barham dodand. Solhoi badijangi Ya.-horo chun yake az shaklhoi savdoi davlati va kooperativi az nav barqaror namudand. Az s. 1958 in jonib Ya.-hoi baynirayoni va baynirespublikavi, ki molro yaklukht mefurushand va az rui namunai mahsulot shartnomahoi tijorati mebandand, muntazam barpo meshavand.

Dar Osiyoi Miyona goh-goh dar mahalhoi serodam va ruzhoi id dar sayrgohho bozorhoi kalon barpo meshudand. Dar bozorho savdogaron asosan molhoi az khorija ovardaashonro mefurukhtand.

Dar respublikai mo har sol Ya.-hoi savdoi yaklukhti sarulibos, poyafzol, molhoi madanivu maishi, khojagi, charchinvoriyu attori guzaronida meshavand. Ya.-hoi savdoi chakana niz barpo megardand. Ya.-i savdoi chakana doimi va muvaqqati meshavad. Ya.-hoi doimii savdoi chakana magazinu pavilonho va korkhonahoi khuroki jamiyatii dar hududi muayyan joygiriftaro dar bar megirand. Har sol dar shahru raionhoi respublika pesh az farorasii soli tahsil Ya.-hoi sarulibos va asbobu anjomi talimii maktabiyon niz barpo meshavand.

yarmarka

Tojikiston (az 1972) dar hayati pavilona SSSR dar namoishgoh va Ya.-hoi baynalkhalqi ishtirok mekunad; to s. 1981 dar 11 Ya.-joi baynalkhalqie, ki dar Hinduston (Nyu-Dehli; 1972), RDG (Leypsig;1974), Turkiya (Izmir; 1975), Misr (Qohira; 1976), Eron (Tehron; 1976), Suriya (Dimishq; 1977), Bulgoriya (Plovdiv; 1978), Afgoniston (Kobul; 1979), Iroq, (Bagdod; 1979), Aljazoir (Aljazira; 1980) va Polsha (Poznan; 1981) barpo shudand, ishtirok namud. Dar Ya.-hoi baynalkhalqii Dimishq, Plovdiv, Bagdod, Aljazira va Poznan bisyor navhoi mahsuloti Tojikiston (mas., «Satin nabivnoy — artikul 649»-i Ittihodiyai istehsolii matohoi pakhtagin, «Atlas abroviy 29»-i Ittihodiyai «Tojikatlas»-i Dushanbe, qolini Ittihodiyai qolinbofii Qayroqqumi Leninobod)-ro bo medali tillo va Gramotai Fakhri qadr namudand.

Ad.: Pavlov K. Ya., Mejdunarodnie yarmarki i vistavki, M., 1962; Brodskiy I. L., Galperin L. V., Optovie yarmarki v SSSR, M., 1972.

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