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Makon va zamon

MAKON VA ZAMON, shaklhoi asosi va umumii mavjudiyati materiya. Makon va 3amon ba tavri obektivi vujud doshta, darkshavanda va doroi khususiyathoi umumi meboshand, ki khosiyati sechenakii jismho, joyivazkunin onho, fosilai bayni jismho va lahzahoi mukhtalifi prosessho va padidaho va nihoyat munosibatn makonivu zamoniro ifoda mekunand. Dar halli in masala du nazariyai asosi — javhari va nisbi (relyasioni) tarikhan tashakkul va inkishof yoftaand, ki onho az chigunagii halli masalai munosibati makonivu zamoii va jismhoi odami moddi muayyan meshavand. Tarafdoroni nazariyai javhari mutaqidand, ki Makon va 3amon hamchun shakln mustaqili javhari novobasta az materiya vujud doshta metavonand, tarafdoroni nazariyai nisbi boshad Makon va 3amonro khosiyati judonashavandai materiya medonand. Ba gayr az in 3amon ba tavri statiki (hamai padidahoi guzashta, hozora va oyandai tabiat realiand)  va dinamiki (faqat padidahoi hozirai tabiatro reali medonad) niz tavsif shudaast.

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Tasavvuroti Makon va 3amon dar ilmu falsafai atiqa va asrhoi miyona. Darki munosibati zamonivu makoni zimni tajribai istehsoli moddi qabl az tashakkuli talimoti falsafiyu tabiatshinosi shuru shuda bud. Hanuz Dar davrai qadim ilmhoi nujum, fizika, riyoziyot va gayra in masalaro ba tavri gunogun tabiru tavil mekardand. Badtar tasavvuroti javharii makonro maktabi atomistii Yunoni Qadim inkishof doda, onro bo khalo yakson donist. Lukresiy nazariyai maktabi atomistiro khulosa namuda, roje ba aloqai ashyoyu hodisavu zamon tahqiqotp muayyan anjom dod. Arastu boshad majmui aqidahoi mavjudaro jambast namud va dar kitobi 4-umi «Fizika»-i khud mafhumhoi khalo, 3akon va 3amonro tahlil namuda, okhiriro hamchun hududi jism muayyan kard, onro az materiya, shakl va fosilai baynn jismho farq kard.

Mutafakkironi asrhoi miyonai Sharq jihathoi rasnonalistii talimoti falsafii ahdi qadimro dar borai Makon va 3amon hifz namuda, onro dar zaminai tarkibi ejodii ananahoi ilmi davom dodand. Onho obektiviyati makon va harakatn jismhoro dar on etirof namuda, zamonro miqdori harakat donistaand.

Mas., ba aqidai Ibni Sino makoni har yak jism ba hajmash barobar ast. Azbaski jismho se andoza dorand, makon niz sohibi se abod — arz, tul umq ast. Muvofiqi aqidai mutafakkir dar yak makon faqat yak jism joygir meshavad. U aloqamandii harakatu zamonu makonro takid namuda, zamonro azali, qadim, beibtido va taqsimpazir medonad. Dar in bora u dar «Kitob-ul-ishorot va-t-tanbehot» navishtaast: «agar harakat nomunqasim buvad, masofat, ki harakat dar vay ast, ham nomunqasim buvad va bayon kardem, ki masofat abadan munqasim ast. Pas, harakat munqasim buvad va chun harakat munqasim buvad, zamon niz munqasim buvad».

Talimoti mutafakkironi Sharqi Nazdik va Miyona tasiri mufido ba tashakkuli tamoyulhoi materialistii asrhoi miyonai Avrupo rasonid. Roli talimoti namoyandagoni maktabi mashsho ba Ibni Rushd va payravoni u dar muboriza ba muqobili teologiyai ortodoksali va tomizm, ilhom bakhshid, ki on badan baroi Ehyoi Garb zamina va sarvati manavi ba shumor meraft.

Tasavvuroti Makon va 3amon dar asrhoi 17—19. Tanqidi aqidai arastuii paydoishi olam va kosmologiyai Batlimus (Ptolemey) dar ahdi Jadid ba tajdidi nazar roje ba masalai makonu zamon ovard. Ba in tajdidi nazar baze talimothoi rasionalistii ahdi guzashta va tasavvuri nave, ki zimni natijai peshrafti ilm va inkishofi nazariyahoi gunogun dar borai padidahoi olam zaminai asosi ba shumor meraft. Avval in ki talimoti Forobi, Beruni va digar mutafakkironi Sharq oid ba yaksonii fizikii padidahoi zaminivu osmoni (ulviyu sifli) ba tasavvuroti beintihoii zamon asos guzoshta bud; duyum, munosibati Makon va 3amonii jismho dar ahdi Jadid a ahmiyati khossa paydo kard; seyum, yak qator tasavvuroti geometriyai mushohidavi dar bobi Makon va 3amon tashakkul yoftand va chahorum, munosibati mantiqiyu matematiki ba in kategoriyaho paydo shuda bud. Dar in davr dar borai obektpviyati Makon va 3amon bahs davom dosht.

R. Dekart, T. Gobbs, B. Spinoza, Chlokk nazariyai statikii zamonro tanqid kunand ham onro hamchun padidai fiziki yo psikhikii subekt medonistand. Dar chunin sharoit talimoti Nyuton dar bobi obektiviyati Makon va 3amon va jori namudani in kategoriyaho dar sistemai mafhumkhoi asosii ilmi fizika muvaffaqiyati muhimi afkori ilmii ahdi Jadid ba shumor meraft. G. Leybnis boshad tahqiqi amiqtari khudro dar hamin zamina inkishof dod, vale az sababi jihathoi idealistii talimotash nazari u mavridi istifodai tabiatshinoson qaror nagirift.

Klassikoni marksizm ba tavri dialektiki komyobihoi ilmiro jambast namudand va mafhumhoi Makon va 3amonro ba tavri materialisti muayyan kardand (talimoti idealistii in mafhumhoro G. Gegel muayyan karda bud) va nazari sifatai navi mantiqiyu metodologii darki Makon va 3amonro ba vujud ovardand. Dar in bora F. Engels navishtaast: «Tabiist ki har dui in shakli mavjudiyati materiya biduni materiya mohiyate nadorand va faqat tasavvurot va abstraksiyae dar maynai mo meboshand» (Marks K. i Engels F., Soch., t. 20, str. 550). In aqidaro badan nazariyai umumii nisbiyat komilan tasdiq kard.

Masalahoi Makon va 3amon dar asri 20. Dar okhiri asri 19 va avvali asri 20 dar sohai fizika revolyutsiyai ilmi ba vujud omad, ki dar natijai on metodologiyai metafizikii peshtara ba metodologiyai dialektikiyu materialisti ivaz shud. Ahamiyati masalai Makon va 3amon dar asari V. I. Lenin «Materializm va empiriokritisizm») ravshan nishon doda shudaast. V. I. Lenin norasoii prinsipialii fahmishi idealistii Makon va 3amonro nishon doda, na faqat obektivi, umumi va darkshavanda budani Makon va 3amonro qayd kard, balki noguzirii tagyiri mazmuni in mafhumhoro dar sohahoi alohidai ilmho nishon dod.

Az jumlai kashfiyothoi umdae, ki mazmuni asosii revolyutsiyai fizikai asri 20-ro tashkil medihad, nazariyai juzii nisbiyati A. Eynshteyn meboshad, ki az bisyor jihat fahmishi Makon va 3amonro tagyir dod. Dar in nazariya bo rohi matematiki tavassuti istilohi muttasili robitai mutaqobilai metrikii Makon va 3amon ifoda yoft; bo khud mafhumi «hamzamoni» mazmuni navi fiziki girift. Nazariyai umumii nisbiyat ba fahmishi Makon va 3amon tagyiroti boz ham jidditar dokhil namud. Ba aqidai A. Eynshteyn «khosiyathoi geometrii makon mustaqil nestand, onho ba materiya vobastaand». Halli muodilahoi nazariyai umumii nisbiyat masalai kajiii makon (fazo), beintihoii on, snigulyariyati Makon va 3amonro ba tarzi nav ba miyon guzosht. Bisyor masalaho dar in soha mavridi tahqiqi fizikai muosir qaror giriftand. Baroi muayyan namudani geometriyai olami reali tadqiqoti A. A. Fridman, ki u modeli Koinoti vaseshavandaro (badan in hodisa az tarafi Habbl kashf shud) peshnihod namudaast, ahamiyati muhim dorad.

Dar ibtidoi asri 20 masalahoi az jihati nazariyavi asosnok namudani khosiyati sechenakii makon va mururi zamon mavridi tahqiq qaror girifta bud. Bahsu munozira baynn tarafdoroni talimoti dinamiki va statiki davom doshta dialektikai robitai mutaqobilai khususiyathoi muttasili va munfasilii Makon va 3amon niz mavridi marifat qaror girift.

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