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UShNA

UShNA, ushnaho, (Vryopsida), odditarin rastanihoi darajai oliest, ki dar khushki, bazan dar obi shirin meruyand va ba guruhi ushnashaklho taalluq dorand. Ushnaho rastanihoi avtotrofi (organizmhoe, ki az moddahoi gayriorganiki moddahoi organikii baroi hayot zarurro hosil mekunand) meboshand. Onho rastanihoi khele maydaand, asosan az 1 mm to 10 sm (bazan to 40—60 sm) qad mekashand. Bargi ushnaho shaklan gunogun (suzanshakl, neshtarshakl, dilshakl, ellepsi va gayra) buda, safedtob (masalan, ushnai torfi yo sfagnum Sphagnum teres; S. fuskum), sabz yo sabpi siyohtob (masalan, fokhtazagirak — Rolitrichum sommune va gayra) meshavand. Ushnaho asosan az sporaho va bo rohi nashvi (az mugja, barg, poya) ziyod megardand. Dar dunyo taqriban 20 hazor namudi ushna mesabzad. Dar SSSR besh aa 1,5 hazor (az on jumla dar Tojikiston 350) namudi ushnaho meruyand. Ushnaho 3 guruh — torfi yo sfagnumho (sfagnidae), andreevi (Angreaeidae) va sabz (Rruidae) meshavand.

ushna
Ushnaho dar tabiat va khojagii khalq ahamiyati kalon dorand. Masalan, Ushnahoi gulsangmonand — Irimmia ovalis va I. rulvinata (oilai irrimmiaceae) dar shakhsori balandkuh va joyhoi besamar meruyand, minbad khushkida ba porukhok tabdil meyoband va ba khokhosilshavi musoidat mekunand. Ushnai biyoboni — Tortura dererutorum (oilai Rottiaceae), ki dar dashtu biyoboni respublika farovon ast, khususiyati moddahol khimiyavi (masalan, simob)-ro zakhira kardan dorad. Bo yorii Ushnai sabz besh az 90%-i kationhoi simobro az obhoi iflos judo kardan mumkin ast. Baze Ushnahoe, ki dar havzu daryohoi respublika mesabzand (masalan Nudrohyphum- luridum, Cinoslidotus nigrecans) khuroki mavjudoti bemuhrai obiand.
Adabiyot: 3erov D. K., Ochork filogenii bessosudistikh rasteniy, Kiev, 1972; Mamadkulov U. K., Listvennie mkhi Darvazskogo khrebta, Dushanbe, 1976; hamon muallif. Flora sporovikh rasteniy Tadjikskoy SSR, tom. 2, Mkhovidnie, Dushanbe, 1983. U. Mamadqulov.

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