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UBAYDI ZOKONI

UBAYDI ZOKONI Ubaydulloh mulaqqab ba Khoja Nizomuddin (1270 yo 1280, dehai Zokoni nazikii Qazvin—1371, Sheroz), shoir va nasrnavisi fors-tojik. Davrai javoni va tahsiloti ibtidoii khudro dar Qazvin guzaronida, sipas baroi idomai tahsil ba Bagdod raft. Bad ba zodgohash omad, vale az rui nodori majbur shud ba khiamati hukmroni Bagdod bozgardad. Baymi solhoi 1341—45 Ubaydi 3okoni az Bagdod ba Sheroz omada, ba khidmati darbori Jamoluddin Abuishoqi Inju (hukmroni 1341—57) dokhil shud. Soli 1353 hokimi viloyati Kirmon Muborizuddin ibni Muhamad Sherozro fath namud. Ubaydi 3okoni ba darbori hokimi Bagdod sulton Uvaysi Jaloiri (hukmroni 1354—73) rahsipor gardid Dar Bagdod sulton va shoironi darbor, makhsusan, Salmoni Sovaji uro khush qabul nakardand. Pas az chande Ubaydi 3okoni ba Sheroz bargashta, ba khidmati Shohshujo — pisari Muborizuddin, ki ba joi padar ba takht nishasta bud, dokhil shud va to okhiri umr dar Sheroz zindagi kard.

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Az Ubaydi 3okoni osori mansuru manzumi nachandon ziyod, vale az jihati mazmunu mundarija va mavzu boy boqi mondaast.
Mashhurtarin asari mansuri Ubaydi 3okoni «Akhloq-ul-ashrof» (1340) meboshad, ki az 7 bob ioorat buda, masalahoi pandu akhloqro dar bar megirad. Har bob aa du qism iborat ast, ki muallif onhoro «mazhabi mansukh» va «mazhabi mukhtor» nomidaast. Dar «mazhabi mansukh» Ubaydi 3okoni afkoru andesha va nazariyoti guzashtagon, dar «mazhabi mukhtor» afkoru aqoidi muosironi khudro dar borai masalai asosii bob bayon kardaast. Baroi tasdiqu taqviyati fikr baytu misraho, hikoyathoi voqei va iqtibos az hadisho ovardaast. «Akhloqul-ashrof» az jihati tarzi bayon va uslub jolibi diqqat ast. Navisanda fikru aqoidi tanqidii khudro az yaomi guzashtagon bayon karda, khudro az taqibu tahdidi ruhoniyon emin medorad.
Dar risolai «Sad pand» (1349— 50) masal, maqol va jumlahoi andarzi faroham omadaand. Ba qavli muallif pandhoro u az «sukhani ulamo va hukamo»-i guzashta (Aflotun, Anushervon va digar) intikhob kardaast, «to nafi u [asar] umumi khaloiqro shomil gardad». «Dah fasl» nom asari Ubaydi 3okoni ba shakli farhang (lugat)-i tafsiri sokhta shudaast. Muallif istilohoti ba 10 mavzu dakhldorro intikhob karda, onhoro ba manii majozi va kinoyaviashon sharh dodaast. Ubaydi 3okoni dar in asar ba hamai sohahoi zindagi, hayoti hunarmandonu donishmandon dakhl karda, hokimonu ashrofon va ruhoniyonro sakht tanqid namudaast.
«Risolai dilkusho» hikoyot va latoifi zarifro dar bar megirad. Choryaki hikoyoti risolai mazkur ba zaboni arabist. Mavzui hikoyahoi «Risolan dilkusho» az tanqidi vaziyati zamon — kharobiyu qashshoqii mazlumon, bekhonumoni va gurusnagi, tanqidi podshohon, ruhoniyon, bidat va khurofoti dini, takabbur, gururi ayonu ashrof, tanqidi zulmu zolimi, sakhtii ahvoli ahli ilmu adab, mazammati shoironi maddoh, tanqidi voizoni behudagui, tamakori va firebgarii qoziyon, makru firebi sinfi hokim, tanqidi bukhlu hasad, soddagii qazvinnyon, hozirjavobin Odamoni oddivu kambagal va gayra iborat ast. «Rishnoma» asari hajviest, ki ba nasri musajja va omekhta bo porchahoi manzum talif shuda, dar shakli munozirai rish (Rishuddin Abulmahosin) va Ubaydi Zokoni sokhta shudaast. Rishi khudro tarifu tavsif mekunad, hamsuhbatash boshad, khususiyathoi badi uro bayon karda, dar tasdiqi fikrash hikoyatho meorad. Maqsadi Ubaydi 3okoni dar «Rishnoma» tanqidi zohirparasti, odobu kirdori noshoistai yak guruh rishdoron, az jumla, ruhoniyon, hokimon va digar meboshad.
«Maktuboti qalandaron» asari mansurest, iborat az du noma (noman shaykh Shnhobuddnni qalandar va javobi mavlono Jaloluddin ibni Qisomuddini Hiravi). Dar in asar Ubaydi 3okoni sabki noravshanu nomafhumi nomanigori va istilohoti nomahoi qalandaronro hajv kardaast. Dar «Kulliyot»-i Ubaydi 3okoni boz yak zumra asarhoi mansuri u, az qabili «Navodir-ul-amsol» (ba zaboni arabi), «Folnomai buruj», «Folnomai vuhush va tuyur», «Maqomot» (dar sabki maqomho) nombar shudaand, ki to hol dastrasi muhaqqiqon nagardidaand.
Dar «Kulliyot»-i Ubaydi 3okoni ba gayr az asarhoi mansur yakchand asarhoi manzum qasndaho, gazalho, ruboiyot, muqattaot, tarkibbandu tarjebandho va masnaviho (taqriban 3500 bayt) faroham omadaand. Ubaydi 3okoni qasoid va yakchand gazalu ruboi, qitaot va tarkibbandhoyashro ba shohonu sultonone, ki dar darborashon khidmat mekard, bakhshidaast. Dar qasoidi Ubaydi 3okoni nomhoi shakhson va voqeoti tarikhi, lahazoti zindagii shoir aikr shudaand. Az in jihat onho dar tarikhi adabiyoti fors-tojik ahamiyati kalon dorand. Gazaliyoti Ubaydi 3okoni dar mavzuoti ananavii adyobiyoti fors-tojiki asri 14— ishqu oshiqi, tanqidi shaykhonu ruhoniyon, zuhdu zohidon, tarribi rindi talif shudaand. Dar onho ham lahazoti zindagii shoir inikos yoftaast. U az kambagalivu nodorn va hamesha giriftori qarz budanash shikoyat kardaast. In guna shikoyatho dar ruboiyot va qitahoi shoir niz ba nazar merasand.
Dostoyai «Mushu Gurba». Maqsadi asosii muallif dar in dostoni tamsili (jangi gurba va mushon) «muddao»-est, ki fahmidani onro ba kho- nanda havola kardaast:
Choni man pand gir az in kissa,
Ki shavi dar zamona shodono.
Garaz az «Mushu Gurba» barkhondan,
Muddao fahm kun, pisarjono.
«Muddao»-i Ubaydi 3okoni, beshubha, jangu jidoli bayni hokimi Kirmon Muborizuddnn va Abuishoqi Inju ast, ki shoir shohidi zindai on voqeot bud. Az in ru, guftan mumkin ast, ki «Mushu Gurba» dostoni tarikhii siyosist, ki dar on voqeoti zamoni muallif ba tavri badei inikos yoftaand.
Dar dostoni digari Ubaydi 3okoni «Ushshoqioma» az oshiqi anduhgin, mukotibai oshiqu mashuq, bozdidi onon, dakholati raqibon, beetiborii mashuq nisbat ba oshiq sukhan meravad. Dar in doston baroi taqviyati fikr va vobasta ba holati ruhii qahramonon Ubaydi 3okoni az ejodiyoti khud va shoiri asri 13 Humomi Tabrezi gazalhoi ishqi ovardaast.
Ubaydi 3okoni garchande dar mavzu va mazmunhoi gunogun asarhoi manzumu mansur ofaridaast, dar tarikhi adabiyoti fors-tojik bo asarhoi hajviash malumu mashhur meboshad. U dar zamoni noorom, zamoni janghoi dokhili baroi toju takht va betartibiyu benizomiho zisva, bo hajvi tezu tundash, ki yak nav muborizai ijtimoi bud, etirozi khudro az in harju marj ba vositai tanqid va khandavu istehzo bayon namuda, jasorati badeii favquloda nishon dodaast. Dar zamoni mo ham qimati badeii hajvi Ubaydi 3okoni zarrae nakostaast. Dar asrhoi miyona namoyandagoni ayonu ashrof, ruhoniyon ba har vositae kushidaand mohiyati ijtimoi, mazmunu mundarijai asarhoi Ubaydi 3okoniro nochiz gardonda, khudi shoirro chun bazlaguy ba qalam dihand. In aqoid dar ogozi davrai nakhustini omuzishi ejodiyoti Ubaydi 3okoni ba ilmi muosir roh yofta bud, vale minbad nazari muhaqqiqon ba osori Ubaydi 3okoni jidditar gardid va on muvofiqi maqomu manzalatash bahoi sazovor girift.
Osor: Kulliyot muntakhab, Dushanbe, 1963; Bogi dilkusho, Dushanbe, 1969; Izbrannoe, Dushanbe, 1965; Vesyolaya kniga, Moskva. 1965;
Adabiyot: Mullojonov S. Sh., Devoni dastkhati qadimtarini Ubaydi Zokoni, «Sharqi surkh», 1948, Dushanbe» 1; Mirzozoda X., Hajvnavisi buzurg Ubaydi Zokoni, dar kitobi u: Afkori rangin, Dushanbe, 1982; Adabiyoti forsu tojik dar asrhoi XII—XIV, qismi 2, Dushanbe, 1983; Radjabov M., Mirovozrenie Ubayda Zokoni, Stalinabad, 1958;

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