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TELEVIZION

TELEVIZION (az tele… va lotini vizo—mebinam), yak sohai ilmutekhnika va madaniyatro guyand, ki akhbori ayoni (tasvirhoi harakat kunanda)-ro tavassuti oloti radioelektroni ba masofai muayyan irsol menamoyad. Aslan uslubi khudi irsolro televizion menomand. Televizion barobari radioshunavoni az ommavitarish vositahoi ‘naqlp akhbor (siyosi, madani, ilmiyu marifati, talimi) va yake az olathoi asosii aloqa dar korhoi amalii ilmu tekhnika (masalan, dar sistemahoi dispetcheri va nazorati sohahoi sanoat va naqliyot, tadqiqi kayhon, korhoi harbi, talimu tarbiya va gayra) moboshad.

Prinsiphoi asosii televizion va tatbiqi tekhnikii onho. Azbaski odam tasvirhoi televizioniro bo chashm mebinad, hangomi sokhtusozi sistemahoi televizion khususiyathoi bosira ba hisob girifta meshavand (nigared Chashm). Baroi irsoli televizioini tasvirho ijroi se amal zarur buvad: ba signali elektri tabdil dodani nure, ki obekti namoish meafkanad yo inikos menamoyad; irsoli sitnalhoi elektri bo kanali aloqa va qabuli onho; az nav ba impulshoi nur tabdil dodani signalhoi elektri va tavassuti onho hosil namudani tasviri optikii obekti namoish. Zaminai ijroi in amalho az tarafi U. Smit (koshifi fotoeffekti daruni; 1873, ShMA), A. G. Stoletev (qonuniyathoi asosii fotoeffekti beruniro muqarrar kardaast; 1888), A. S. Popov (ikhtirokori radioaloqa; 1895). B. L. Rozyung (ikhtirokori ba istiloh sistemai «teleskopiyai katodi», ki dar on baroi tajdidi tasvir karnai elektronshuoi istifoda meshavad; 1907) guzoshta shudaast.

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Dar televizion prinsipi irsoli paydarpai tasvir (unsur ba unsur) qabul shudaast, ki onro olimi portugali

A. di Payva (1878) va fiziki rus P. A. Bakhmetev (1880) peshnihod kardaand. Prosesi tabdili paydarpai unsurhoi tasvir ba signalhoi elektri hangomi irsol va jarayoni baraksi on hangomi qabul gustarishi tasvir (nigared Gustarishi televizioni) nom dorad. Prosesshoi tahlilu tarkibi tasvir boyad sinkhroni va sinfazi boshand. Qonuni gustarish az rui tainoti sistemai televizioni muayyan meshavad. Masalan dar televizioni hozirazamon gustarishi khattivu satri qabul shudaast, ki dar on kadri mutashakil bunyodi amudiyu satri dorad. Baroi baqoi sinfazagii gustarish dar okhiri har yak satr va kadr impulshoi sinkhronizananda firistoda meshavand. Hamin tavr stansiyai televizioni dar mintaqai amaliyoti khud gustarishi hamai televizorhoro idora menamoyad. Prosesshoi tekhnikii tabdil va tajdidi tasviri optiki dar televizioni hozirazamon asosan tavassuti karnai elektronshuoii vakuumi ba amal ovarda meshavald. Istifodai amalii sistemahoi elektronii televizion ba solhoi 1920— 30 rost omad, ki tufayli korhoi tadqiqotu yakhtirooti V. K. Zvorikin, F. Farnsuort (P1MA), K Svinton (Angliya), V. P. Grabovskiy, S. I. Kataev, A. P. Konstantinov, B. L. Rozing, P. V. Timofeev, P. V. Shmakov (SSSR) va digaron surat giriftasst.

Inkishofi televizion az irsoli faqat tavsifoti ravshanii har yak unsuri tasvir ogoz yoftaast. Dar televizioni muqarrari (nigared rasm) signalhoi ravshani (videosignal) dar baromadgohi karnai irsol taqviyat va tabdil meyoband. Dar on ba sifati kanali aloqa radiokanal yo kanali kabeli istifoda meshavad.

Dar televizioni ranga gayr az signalhoi ravshani informasiyai rangi har yak unsuri tasvirro ham irsol menamoyand. Kamerai irsoli televizioni ranga az se karnay iborat ast (baroi hosili signalhoi ravshani va ranghoi asosi — surkh, sabz, kabud). Sistemahoi televizioni muqarrari (monokhromi), ranga, stereomonokhromi va stereoranga (vobasta ba sifat); qiyosi va raqami (vobasta ba shakli signal), farokhfosila (fosilai mavjguzaroniash ba fosilai mavjguzaronii kanali namoish barobar yo az on kalon) va kambarfosila (vobasta ba spektri basomadi kanali aloqa) meshavand.

Televizion bo mururi zamon chun sistemai namoishi televizioni mamul gardid. Holo apparaturai televizionro baroi halli masalahoi gunoguni ilmiyu tekhniki, tibbi, sohahoi khojagii khalq vase istifoda mebarand. Soli 1962 televizioni kayhoni (dar SSSR; nigared Kosmovizion) ba vujud omad, ki dar tadqiqotu fathi kayhon roli kalon mebozad.

Televizion imkoniyat dod, ki tarafi az Zamin nonamoyoni Moh az khud karda shavad, tavassuti on stansiyahoi avtomatii «Lunokhod-1» va «Lunokhod-2» dar masofai taqriban 400 hazor km idora va tasviri fototelevizioni Moh, Utorid, Zuhra, Mirrikh va Mushtari girifta shudaast.

Namoishi televizion yake az vositahoi asosii akhborotivu targiboti, talimu tarbiya va istirohatl aholi meboshad. Tajribahoi ba masofa irsol namudani tasvir aa ruzhoi avvali Hokimiyati Soveti ogoz yoftand V. I. Lenin ba taraqqiyoti minbada va istifodai amalii televizion diqqati jiddi medod. Soli 1930 dar laboratoriyai Instituti umumiittifoqii elektrotekhnikii sistemai mekhanikie tahiya shud, ki tasvirro ba 30 satr judo karda namoish medod. Az 1 oktyabri 1931 tasvirhoi beharakat (irsoli televizioni kamsatr) muntazam namoish doda meshudand, dar Leningrad, Odessa, Kiev, Kharkov, Nijniy Novgorod, Smolensk, Tomsk namoishi televizioni mekhaniki ogoz yoft. Soli 1932 bori avval tasviri haranatkunanda (telekino), soli 1934 boshad tasvirn harakatkunandai sadodor namoish doda shud. Televizioni elektroni dar Moskva va Leningrad az soli 1939 ba kor daromd, 10 marti soli 1939 dar Moskva dar borai kushoda shudani Sezdi 18-umi VKP (b) film namoish doda shud. Minbad namoishi kinofilm, kansert, spektakl va teleslektaklho muntazam idoma yoft. Soli 1951 studiyai markazii televizion tashkil shud, ki dar on az soli 1954 redaksiyahoi targibot, sanoat, khojagii qishloq, ilm, sport ba kor sar kardand. Soli 1954 dar Moskva bori avval namoishhoi tajribavii televizioni ranga guzaronida shudand. Dar okhiri solhoi 50 televizion umumiittifoqi gardid. SSSR az soli 1961 azoi Tashkiloti baynalkhalqii «Intervidenie» meboshad.

Studiyai televizioni tojik 7 noyabri 1959 ba kor daromad, 2 fevrali 1960 studiyai sayyori televizioni (SST) ba kor sar kard. Az soli 1967 in jonib tamoshobinon barnomahoi televizioni markazi va studiyai televizioni Toshkentro ba vositai kanali releii Dushanbe — Toshkent tamosho mekunand. 25 yanvari 1975 stansiyai sayyori televizioni ranga ba kor daromad.

Holo televizioni tojik 4 barnomaro namoish medihad. Namoishhoi barnomahoi 1-um va 2-yumi umumiittifoqi tavassuti sistemai ruizaminii aloqai «Vostok-A» va sistemai kayhonii aloqa «Orbita» girifta meshavand. Studiyai televizioni ranga bo apparathoi tekhnikii hozirazamon jihozonida shudaast. Hajmi umumii namoishhoi studiyai mahalli dar yak shaboruz taqriban 8 soat meboshad, ki ziyoda az 3 soati onro bevosita kormandoni redaksiyaho va studiya tayyor )mekunand, bo studiyahoi televizioni respublikahoi ittifoqi hamkorii ejodi dorad.

Namoishhoi asosii televizioni tojik — «Akhbor», «Novosti», «Hayoti partiyavi», «Dar mudofiai Vatan», «Tandurusti», «Tabiat va inson», «Barnomai javoni», «Klubi dugonaho», «Gulkhan», «Sitoracha», «Bahoriston», «Chashma», «Gulshani adab», «Navo», «Hayoti musiqi», «Savtu kalom» va gayra meboshand, Tavassuti barnomai seyum barnomahoi televizioni Toshkent namoish doda meshavad, ki hajmi umumii namoishhoi yakshaboruzii on 6 soat ast. Barnomai chorum namoishhoi barnomai chorumi televizioni markaziro ba vositai sistemai kayhonii «Orbita» translyasiya monamoyad.

Televizioni soveti az televizioni markazi, respublikavi va mahalli (kishvari, viloyati) iborat ast. Televizioni markazi 6 barnoma dorad, ki dutoi on baroi nohiyahoi durdasti mamlakat tain shudaast. Barnomai yakum barnomai asosii umumiittifoqii informasioni, jamiyati-siyosi, badei va marifati meboshad (vaqti namoish 13 soat dar yak shaboruz). Baroi RSS Uzbakiston, RSS Tojikiston, RSS Qirgiziston, RSS Turkmaniston, yak qator viloyathoi RSS Qazoqiston va Ural misli barnomai yakum barnomai «Vostok» namoish doda meshavad (ba hisobi ashyoi 13 soat dar yak shaboruz).

Soli 1977 sokinoni shahri Khorug va digar rayonhoi VABK namoishhoi barnomai 1-umi televizioni markaziro tamosho mekunand. Guruhi ejodii «Tojiktelefilm» har sol 9—10 filmhoi hujjati va badei istehsol menamoyad.

Dar khorija namoishhoi muntazami televizion soli 1936 dar Angliya az Germaniya, soli 1941 dar ShMA ogoz yoftand. Dar Evropa televizion solhoi 50, dar mamlakathoi (mutaraqqi solhoi 60 ba tavri ommavi pahn gardid. On dar mamlakathoi sosialisti dar ikhtiyori davlat meboshad. Mamlakathoi mutaraqqii kapitalisti studiyai tolevizionii ham davlati va ham tijorati dorand. Televizioni mamlakathoi taraqqikunanda dar ikhtiyori davlat buda baroi akhborot, marifat va tarbiyan omma khizmat mekunad. Azbaski shumorai televizorho kam ast, dar klubhoi makhsus namoishhoi kollektivona tashkil karda meshavand.

A. Asrorov.

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