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TASRIF

TASRIF, vobasta ba shakhs, shumora va zamon tagyiryobii felhoro guyand. Tasrif bo bandakhoi feli yo fleksiyai feli ifoda shuda, ba zamonu sigaho niz vobastagi dorad. Shaklhoi felii zaboni tojiki se khel tasrif meshavand. Shaklhoe, ki az asosi zamoni hozira sokhta shudaand. ba tasrifi yakum mansuband. Dar sigai khabari shaklhoi zamoni hozira-oyanda va feli yoridihandai zamoni oyanda hamin tarz tasrif meshavand (me- khon-am, mekhon-i, mekhon-ad, -em, -ed, and; khoh-am khond, khoh-i khond. khohad khond, -em, -ed, -and). Tamomi shaklhoi sigai sharty-khohishmandi niz hamin tavr tasrif meyoband (khon-am, khon-i, khon-ad, -em, -ed, -and; khonda bosh-am, khonda bosh-i, khonda bosh-nd, -em, -ed, -and; mekhonda bosh-am, mekhonda bosh-i, mekhonda bosh-ad, -em, -ed, -and; khonda istoda bosh-am, khoi- da istoda bosh-i, khoida istoda bosh- ad, -em, -ed, -and). Shaklhoi sigai amri ham hamin tarz tasrif meshavand (khon—khoned). Shaklhoi felie, ki az asosi zamoni guzashta sokhta shudaand, ba tasrifi duyum taalluq dorand. Dar sigai khabari zamoni guzashtai sodda, zamoni guzashtai hikoyagi va zamoni guzashtai dur bo hamin tasrif tagyir meyoband. Az in shaklho shakhsi seyumi tanho bandak nadorad va bo asosi zamoni guzashta barobar ast: khoid-am, khoid-i, khond, -em, -ed, -and; mekhondam, mekhond-i, mekhond, -em, -ed, -and; khonda bud-am, khonda bud-i, khonda bud-am, -ed, -and. Shakl- hoi tasrifii felie, ki az sifat- hoi feli sokhta shudaand, ba tasrifi seyum taalluq dorand. Tasrifi onho bo bandakhoi khabari ifoda meshavad. Du shakli muayyani sigai khabari (zamoni hozirai muayyan va zamoni guzashtai muayyani naqli) ba in tasrif mansub ast: khonda istoda-am, khonda istoda-i, khonda istoda-ast, -em, -ed, -and; khonda istoda buda-am, khonda istoda buda-i, khonda istoda buda-ast, -em, -ed, -and. Faqat zamoni guzashtai muaiyan ba tasrifi duyum mansub ast: khonda istoda budam, khonda istoda bud-i, khonda istoda bud-em, -ed, -and. Shaklhoi naqlii sigai khabari bo tasrifi sokht tagyir meyoband: khonda-am, khonda-i, khonda-ast, -em, -ed, -and; meoonda-am, mekhonda-i, mekhon- da-ast, -em, -ed, -and: khonda buda-am, khonda buda-i, khonda buda-ast, -em, -od -and. Shaklhoi sigai ehtimoli niz ba tasrifi seyum dokhil shuda, bo bandakhoi khabari digar meshavand: khondagi-st, khondagist-am, khondagist- i, khondagist-em va gayra. Dar zaboni tojiki khabarhoi nomi ham ba vositai bandakhoi khabari tasrif shuda, shartan ba navi seyum dokhil meshavand, zero bandakhoi khabari tarikhan feland: korgar-am, korgar-i, kor- gar ast, korgarm, korgar-ed, korgar- and.
Adabiyot: Grammatkkai zaboni adabii hozirai tojik, jildi 1, Dushanbe, 1985. D. Tojiev.

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