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TANK

TANK (anglisi (tank — sisterna, zarf), moshini jangii zirehpushest, ki bo yorii tasmacharkh harakat mekunad. Loihahoi avvalini junin moshinro (dertar onro Tank nomidand) dar Rossiya (1911—15) injeneroni rus V. D. Mendeleev, A. A. Porokhovshikov va A. Vasilev, dar Angliya (1912) De-Mol, dar Avstro Vengriya (1913) G. Burshtn peshnihod kardaand. Anglisho tiramohi 1916 chandin tank («Marka-1») sokhta, onhoro 15 sentyabr avvalnn bor dar muhoribai nazdi daryoi Somma istifoda burdand. Fransaviho tankhoi khurd «Shneyder» va «Sen-Shamon»-ro avvalin bor 16 apreli 1917 ba kor burdand. Namunahoi avvalini tankhoi nemisho (A — 7 — V va A -7 — VV) soli 1918 paydo shudand. Dar okhiri Jangi yakumi jahon dar ShMA tankhoi vaznini anglisii “Marka –V” va “Marka VSh” (bo muharriki amerikoi) va tankhoi fransavii “Reno” barovarda shudand. Avvalin tanki soveti (bo nomi «Muborizi rohi ozodi rafiq Lenin») 31 avgusti 1920 az sanjish guzasht. Az soli 1928 istehsoli tankhoi sabuki MS-1 ba roh monda shud. Solhoi Jangi duyumi jahon (1939—45) asosan tankhoi vaznashon miyona sokhta shudand. Ahamiyati tankhoi vazninafzuda, ahamiyati tankhoi sabuk kam shud va sokhtani onho dar baze mamlakatho (SSSR, Germaniya) qat gardid. Solhoi jang dar zaminai tank dastgohhoi khudgardi artilleri (SAU) ba vujud omadand.

tank
Qismhoi asosii tankhoi zamonavi inhoand: korpusi zirehpush, gunbad, kompleksi yaroqu asliha (aslihai asosi va yorirason, komplekti tiru doru), asoobu afzori mushohidavu nishongiri, dastgohi quvva (motor), tahvili quvvagi (tranomissiya), qismi gasht, jihozi elektri, vasilahoi aloqa, tajhizoti ziddisukhtor, sistemai himoya az yaroqi atomi va GAYRA. Korpus va gunbadi tank hamai juzhoi onro muttahid mekunand va baroi az zarbaho emin doshtani ekipaj, asbobu anjom va suzishvori peshbini shudaand. Dar gunbad aslihai asosii tank joygir karda meshavad. Gunbadhoro bo harakatovardhoi dasti, elektri yo elektrogidravliki tob dodan mumkin ast. Korpus va gunbadro az pulodi ligeronidashuda tayyor mekunand.
Tankhoi hozirazamon ekipaji 3—4 nafara, tupi kalibrash 105—152 millimetri va 36—48 t vazn doshta bo surati 41—64 km/soat harakat mekunand.

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SAMOLYOT

SAMOLYOT, apparati parishi muharriku boldori vaznintar az havoet, ki baroi parvoz dar atmosfe¬ra tain shudaast. …