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Shohii Port

PORT, shohii Port, davlate, ki taqriban  soli 250 to melod dar Janub va janubu sharqi bahri Khazar, badi sust shudani imperiyai Selevkiyon va ba Port za­da daromadani qabilahoi bodiyanishini sakoii parnho asos yofta, to solhoi 20 asri 3 vujud dosht. Viloyati Port az asri 7 to melod hamchun sarzami­ne, ki dar sharqi bahri Khazar voqe bud, malum ast. Portho ba modiho nazdik buda, zabonashon ba guruhi za­bonhoi aronii garbi mansub bud. Port yakchand muddat ba hayati Mod, dertar ba davlati Hakhomanishiyon dokhil meshud. Dar avvali hukmronii Doroi I dar Port shurishi kalon cap zad. Portro Iskandari Maqduni niz ba imperiyai khud hamroh kard. Soli 209 to melod Antiokhi Sh. Portro ba imperiyai Selevkiyon tobe namud. Dar miyonai asri 3 to melod Port misli yak qator viloyathoi digari shohii Port az hayati imperiyai Selevkiyon baromad. Dar in davra dar dashthoi Nazdikaspiy va nohiyahoi atrofi on ittihodiyai qabilahoi kuchmanchii dahho tashkil yoft va rohbari on Arshak soli 247 to melod khudro shoh elon kard. Solhoi 30 asri 3 to melod dakhho Portro zabt namuda, shohi on Andragorro kushtand. Badi zabti Port dakhho dar in sarzamin maskan giriftand, bo aholii mahalli omekhta shuda, dinu zaboni onhoro qabul kardand va dar in jo poytakhti av­valini khud Gekatompilro bunyod namudand. Az hamin sabab davlati tashkilkardan dakhho komi Portro girift. Avvalho ba hayati Port tanho viloyati Port va sarzaminhoi at­rofi on (janubi sharqi bahri Khazar) dokhil meshudand. Portiho baroi mustahkam namudani sarhadi khud dar Garb bo imperiyai Selevkiyon, dar Sharq bo Yunonu Bokhtar muboriza meburdand. Mitridati I taqriban solhoi 170— 188/137 to melod satrapiyahoi sharqii Selevkiyon — Mod, qismi ziyodi Baynaniahrayn, Elimaida, Fors va qismi shohii Yunonu Bokhtarro zabt kard (136 to melod). Vale dar natijai shurishhoi shahrhoi yunonii Baynannahrayn harakati zabtkoronai Port bozdoshta shud. Az niman duyumi asri 2 to melod hujumi kuchmanchiyon az Sharq ba Port purzur shud. Dar muborizai ziddi kuchmanchiyon du nafar shohi portiho halok gardidand. Selevkiyon dar Garb baroi bargardonidani viloyathoi Eron mekushidand. Dar asri 1 to melod Port dar ahdi Mitridati II az nav davlati tavono gardid. Territoriyai on az Furot to Mar­giyonu Arakhosiya va hatto Hindustoni Garbiro dar bar megirift. Shohoni Port ba sarhadi garbi diqqati makhsus medodand va poytakhti khudro avval ba Ekbatana (Hamadon), badtar ba Ktesifon (Taysafun) kuchondand.

port

Ibtidoi asri 1 to melod portiho bori na­khust bo rimiyon raqobat kardand (to in vaqt rimiyon dar Sharq raqibi barobari khudro nadoshtand va avvalho ba Port diqqati makhsus nadodand). Soli 92 to melod davlathoi Rim va Port shartnoma bastand, in muvofiqi on sarhadi bayni onho daryoi Furot muayyan karda shud. Dar ahdi shohi Port Orodi II armiyai Rim ba Baynannahrayn zada daromad. Rimiyon soli 53 to melod dar muhoribai Karra shikasti sakht khurda, az maqsadi zabti viloyathoi Port dast kashidand. Dar Osiyoi Garbi sistemai «dualizmi siyosi», yane hukmronii du quvvai siyosi — Rim va Port jori shud. Muborizai bayni Rim va Port asosan baroi sarzamini Armaniston va Baynannahrayni Shimoli davom mekard. Portiho solhoi 40—39 to melod qarib tamomi Suriya va qismi ziyodi Osiyoi Khurdro zabt namudand. Rimiyon solhoi 39—38 in territoriyahoro az nav ba khud tobe namudand.

Ibtidoi asri 3 melod ba muqobili Port viloyati Fors baroi mustaqiliyat muboriza burd. Soli 224 melod dar zadukhurdi bayni Ardasheri Sosoni va shohi Port Artaboni V, ki dar hamvorii Hurmuzdahana ba vuqu omad, portiho torumor karda shudand. Badi in muhoriba agarchande pisari Artaboni V — Artaboz baroi hokimiyat muddate muboriza burd, shohii Port tanazzul yofta barham khurd.

Sokhti siyosii Port murakkab bud. Dar sari davlat shoh meistod. Hokimiyati vay merosi nabud. Uro ashrof az bayni avlodi Ashkoniyon (nig. Ashkoniyoni Port) intikhob mekardand. Dar Port ashrof roli bagoyat kalonro mebozidand. Davlat ba sat­rapiyaho taqsim meshud. Ba hayati on hafdah shohii nimmustaqil, inchunin ba sifati vohidi makhsusi mamuri polishoi Yunon va shahrhoi mustaqili Bobul dokhil budand. Hamai in mulkho va shahrho markazi oshubho ba shumor meraftand.

Aholii polishoi yunoni bisyortar dar zamoni janghoi portihovu rimiyon shurish bardoshta, ba tarafi rimiyon meguzashtand. Shohoni Port badi pakhsh kardani shurishi ziddiporti dar Solevkiya (soli 43 to melod) mukhtoriyati polishoi yunoniro bar­ham dodand, vale az uhdai to okhir tobe kardani hamai mulkho nabaromadand. Viloyathoi Margiyon, Sakiston (Siston), Gurgon, Elimaida, Fors, Harokan tobei Port ba hisob ravand ham, dar amal mustaqil bu­dand. Quvvat giriftani shohii nimmustaqili Fors ba parokanda shudani Port ovarda rasond.

Tarkibi ijtimoii Port khele gunogun bud, ki on to hol dar ilm purra aniq karda nashudaast. Port ba du qismi az jihati iqtisodiyu ijtimoi va madani mukhtalif — viloyathoi Eron Va Baynannahrayn taqsim meshud. Ikhtilofi onho asosan dar muboriza baroi takhti shohi zohir megardid. Yak guruhi dovtalaboni takhti shoh ba ashrofi viloyati Eron va kuchmavchiyoni Osiyoi Miyona, guruhi digarashon ba shahrhoi yuno­nii Baynannahrayn va rimiyon takya menamudand.

Dar viloyathoi sharqi khojagii qishloq khele inkishof yofta, qismi asosii aholiro dehqononi ozod, azoyoni jamoan dehot tashkil mekardand. Azoi jamoa zamini khudro tanho bo rozigii hamsoyan khud furukhta metavonist. Dertar dehqonon ba ashrof — «ozodho» va feodalon tobe gashtand. Gulomdori dar mamlakat sust rivoj yofta, tanho dar viloyathoi garbi (Bobuliston, Baynannahrayn, Elimaida) roli kalon mebozid. Malumoti arkhivi az Niso yoftashuda dar borai vase pahn shudani andozi naturali va puli, inchunin taraqqiyoti khojagii qishloq dar Port shahodat me­dihand. Dehqonon gayr az dehqoni inchunin ba tokparvari mashgul meshudand. Hunarmandi ba darajai baland rivoj yofta bud. Qolinhoi Port va masnuoti fuluzii Margiyon dar Sharq shuhrat doshtapd. Az hududi Port Rohi buzurgi abreshim meguzasht. Tojironi Port ba Rim pust, mato, ohan va makhsusan abreshim meburdand. Onho bo Khitoy, Palmi­ra, Armaniston, Misr va Falastin niz savdo mekardand. Ba vositai rohhoi khushkigard va bahri savdo bo Hinduston khelo vase ba roh monda shuda bud. Az Garb mahsuloti hunarmandi, az jumla shisha meovardand.

Madaniyat dar Port shakli muayoyane nadosht. Dar asrhoi avvali mavjudiyati davlat madaniyati ellinii shahrhoi yunoni va aholii madalli az ham judo inkishof meyoftand. Az miyonai asri 1 melod cap karda omezishi in du madaniyat cap shud, ki on ba tashakkuli yakchand namudhoi sanati Portu Yunon ovarda rasond. Dar ibtido sanati Port hamchun yake az shokhahoi madaniyati ellini ba shumor meraft. Minbad unsurhoi san­ati ellini qisman az bayn rafta, qisman az tarafi aholii mahalli takmil doda shud. Mabadhoi qismi sharqii Port ba otashkada monand budand (mabadi Takhti Jamshed, asri 3 to melod). Dar atrofi qasri markazi binohoi gunoguni ayvondor mesokhtand. Dar qatori asarhoi plastikii ellini, dar qismi sharqii Port mujassamahoi mahallii khurdi guldor (dar binohoi Niso), plastikai khurd (dar Margiyon) mamul budand. Dar Nippura mabadhoi tipi bobulistoni sokhta meshudand; tasiri tipi yunoniyu rimiro dar mabad­hoi Khatra mushohida kardan mumkin ast.

Dar Port dini yagonai davlati niz nabud. Aholi ba khudoyoni mahalli, yunoni, eroni, baynannahrayni va gayra. ibodat mekard. Dar viloyathoi sharqi az davradoi qadim zardushtiya pahn shuda, dar nimai avvali asri 1 m.elodi, az zamoni onro dastgii kardani shohoni Port mavqeash mustadkam shud. Muvofiqi baze malumotho, dar zamoni hukmronii Vologezi I ba yak majmua gird ovardani «Avesto» cap shud. Dar Port baland gardidani maqomi zardushtiya minbad baroi dar davrai Sosoniyon ba dini davlati tabdil yoftani on zaminai musoid faroham ovard. Oid ba ta­rikhi Port manbahoi khatti khelo kamand va az in ru baroi muayyan namudani hayoti iqtisodiyu ijtimoi va siyosii Port bozyofthoi arkheologi ahamiyati makhsus paydo mekunand. Alhol arkhsologho dimnahoi ziyodi shahrhoi qadimai Port (Dura-YOvropos, Khatra, Sslovkiya, Oshur, Shush, Kuhi Khojo)-ro tadqiq kardand. Dar Turkmanistoni Janubi, ki vi­loyathoi qadimai Port va Margiyon voqe gashta budand, yodgorihoi ziyod yoft shudand. Arkhsologho soveti dar Niso boqimondahoi kushk, mabad va khazinai shod, inchunin osori purarzishi sanat, boqimondahoi oloti ruzgor, yaroq va arkhivi sho­honi Port sadho hujjathoi dar rui safolporaho sabtshuda yoftand.

Ad.: Masson M. E., Narodi i ob­lasti yujnoy chasti Turkmenistana v sostave parfyanskogo gosudarstva, «Tr. YuTAKE», t. 5, Ashkhabad, 1955; Dyako­nov I. M., Livshis V. A., dokumen­ti ie Nisi: 1 v. do n. v. Predvaritel­nie itogi raboti, M., 1.960; Dyako­nov M. M., Ocherk istorii drevnego Irana, M., 1961; Koshele n k o G. A., Kultura Parfii, M., 1966; B o k sh a p i n A. G., Pshrfiya i Rim, ch. 1—2, M., I960—66; Gafurov B. G., Tadjiki. Drevneyshaya, drevnyaya i srednevekovaya istoriya, M.. 1972; Fray R., Nasledie Irana, M., 1972.

I. V. Pyankov.

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