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SUTUN

sutun

SUTUN, yak juzi inshooti memorist, ki iborat az poya, tana va bosha buda, saqfi khonaro nigoh medorad. S. aa chub, sang va khishti pukhta, metall yo ohanu beton sokhta meshavad. Dar hududi Tojikiston qadimtarin Sutuni sangin (asri 13) dar yodgorii memorii Hoja Abdullohi Ansori (dehan Uguki nohiyai Gonchi) boqi mondaast. Sutunhoi in yodgori nukborik, poyaash mudavvar, shashtarka, chorkalid (guli shamshod) buda, kandakori shudaand. Boz poysutunhoi sangini mudavvar, rostkunja va murabba boqi mondaand, ki Sutunhoi chubinro ba rui on ustuvor mekardaand. Namunahoi mahfuzmonda (asrhoi 15—49) guvohi modihand, ki dar memorii shahru dehoti Osiyoi Miyona poysutunhoi munaqqashi marmari mamul budaand. Sutunhoi az marmari safedi Gazgon (nohiyai Nurato, viloyati Navoi) yaklukht taroshida niz duchor meshavand, ki naqshhoi gireh, islimi va katibaho dorand. Dar gushahoi sagonahoi marmari Sutunhoi khurd vomekhurand (asrhoi 15—16). Dar Osiyo Miyona yakchand namudi Sutun mashhur bud: ubaydi, rosttana va gunogunshakl (bisyorrakha, angirtakdor, kandakori va gayra). Sutunhoi ubaydi dar yodgorihoi memorii mazori Hazrati Shoh (asrhoi 10—12, dehai Chorkuhi nohiyai Isfara) istifoda shudaasg. On bo naqshhoi murakkabu nazarrabo misli navda, mehrob, chorbarg, kholgul — tugma va gayra oro yoftaast. Az rui malumoti bostonshinoson in guna Sutunro dar zamonhoi qadim boloi poysutunhoi sangin ustuvor kardaand. Sutuni naqshin az tana, kuzagi va poysutui tarkib yofta, dar sanati memorii asrhoi 7—20-i Osiyoi Miyona mamul budand. Dar memorai tojik Sutunhoi bebosha va boshador mashhur budand. Boshahoi tarkibiro kallamuqarnas menomand. In guna boshaho bo naqshhoi purpechutobu khushoburang zinat doda meshudand (Sutuni masjidhoi Uroteppa, Isfara, Leninobod, Konibodom va gayra). Tanai Sutunro sufta yo kandakori mekardand va onro sutuni shami, sutuni rakhdor va gayra menomidand. Sutun az 8 to 16 rakh dosht. Dar Uroteppa beshtar Sutunhoi shashrakha mamul budand. Tanahoi «toftashuda»-i Sutunro morpech menomidand. Dar il navhoi Sutun kura ba shakli kuzagi, qumgoni, shalgami, tarbuzi, tukhmi zinat doda meshud. Dar shimoli Tojikiston rui kurai Sutunho madokhilho (3—5 yo ziyoda az in oroishoti bargshakl) zinat meyoftand. Kurai Sutunhoi Janubi Tojikiston boshad, muqarrari buda, oroishot nadorad.

Sutunhoi rosttanai mudavvar dar memorii tojik chandon mamul nabudand. Miqdori in gula Sutunho khele kam ast. Namunai barjastai on Sutuni chubini dehai Kurud (asrhoi 10 —12, nohiyai Ayni, holo dar Muzei muttahidai respublikavii tarikhiyu kishvarshinosi va sanati tasvirii Dushanbe) meboshad. Sutuni «tofta» va Sutunhoi digari masjidi jomei dehai Vorukhi nohiyai Isfara (ibtidoi asri 19) az hamin qabiland. Ibtidoi asri 20 barobari navhoi ananavi, dar binohoi istiqomativu jamiyatni Osiyoi Miyona Sutunhoi chubini  chortarosh mamul gardidand, ki onhoro dar bayni khalq sutuni rusi menomand.

Adabiyot: Pisarchin A. K., Narodnaya arkhitektura Samarqanda, Dushanbe, 1975; Ruziev M., Iskusstvo tadjikskoy rezbi po derevu, Dushanbe, 1976.  M. Ruziev.

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