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SOLGARDONI, Muchal

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SOLGARDONI, muchal, Muljar, yake az qadimtarin hisobhoi davriest, ki tavassuti nom burdani 12 hayvon (mush, baqar, palang, khargush, nahang, mor, asp, gusfand, hamduna, murg, sag, khuk), sinnu soli odamon muayyan karda meshud. Solgardoni odatan bo «mush» (az 22 mart) sar shuda, bo «khuk» (to 21 mart) khotima meyobad. Qisobi Solgardonii shakhsi dar yake az in solho tavallud yoftaro az nomi hayvone, ki ba in sol muvofiq meomad, ogoz mekardand. Masalan, agar kas dar soli «gusfand» tavallud shavad, solash gusfand, dar soli «asp» tavallud shavad, solash asp hisob meyoft. Badi 12 sol odam yak muchalro pur mekard. Vale hangomi muayyan namudani sinni odamon hayoti batnimodarii onhoro yak sol hisob karda, onro ba 12 zam menamudand. Dar natija muchali 1-um na 12 sol, balki 13 sol va yakjoya bo muchali 2-yum 25 sol hisob meshud. Muchalro pur kardani odamon voqeai muhim ba shumor meraft. Binobar on zanonu dukhtaron badi pur kardani yak yo du muchal ziyofat meorostand. Mardho boshand, faqat badi rasidan ba sinni paygambar Muhammad (63) ziyofat medodand. Odamon soli khud, padaru modar, ahli oila va shakhsoni tarikhiro az yod medonistand.

Az rui hisobi muchal soli tavalludi odamro ba tariqi zerin muayyan menamoyand: avval ba soli tavallud (az rui solshumorii milodi) raqami 9-ro jam mekunand, soli hosili jamro ba raqami 12 taqsim mekunand; baqiyai taqsim aynan ba raqami tartibi in yo on soli muchali dar fehristi solhoi mazkur barobar meoyad. Masalan, agar soli tavalludi kas 1938 boshad, ongoh

1938 + 9 = 1947

1947 :12 = 162

Baqiya 3

Pas, soli u palang budaast. Solgardoni az qadimulayyom dar bayni khalqhoi Osiyo va Afrika malum ast. Bino ba manbahoi khatti, Solgardoni avval dar bayni bodiyanishiyaan-chorvodoroni Yunonu Bokhtar paydo shuda, bad ba Muguliston, Khitoy, Yaponiya, Hinduston, Misr, Iroq, Eron, Afgoniston va digar mamlakatho roh yoft. Ba solho dodani mahz nomi hayvonho az on darak medihad, ki odamon ba onho etiqod doshtand. 12 hayvone, ki nomashon ba Solgardoni dokhil shudaznd, «bakhosiyat», «muqaddas» hisob meshudand. Ammo hayvonhoe, ki ba Solgardoni dokhil meshudand, na dar hama kishvarho yak son budand. Va in vobasta ba on bud, ki dar kadom mamlakat ba kadom hayvon beshtar etiqod dorand. Masalan, dar Khitoy oa joi nahang ajdahoi afsonaviro, baze khalqhoi Afrika ba joi nahang timsohro, dar Misr ba joi mush kallamush, ba joi asp kharro dokhil namudaznd. Dar Solgardoni hayvonho ba du guruh: «halol» va «harom» judo karda meshudand. Odamon soloro, ki nomi hayvoni «halol» (baqar, khargush, gusfand)-ro dosht, soli purfayau barakat, soli hayvoii «harom»-ro soli befayzu baraka medonistand.

Ba aqidai onho, dar soli «mor» qahti, qimati, zimistoni qahratun, dar soli «nahang» boroni aibd meshudaast; bachahoi dar soli «khargush» tavalludyofta boshavd, khushbakhtu badavlat meshudaznd.

O. Murodov.

Dar boramon

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