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SARMATHO

SARMATHO (az lotini 8agta1ae), nomi mushtaraki qabilahoi eronizabon, ki asri 3 to milod—asri 4 milod dar biyobonhoi az daryoi Tobol dar Sharq to daryoi Dunay dar Garb maskun budand. Tarikhi ibtidoi Sarmatho bo savromatho vobastaast. Khojagii Sarmatho asosan az chorvodori iborat bud. Sarmathoi bo aholii muqimii dehqon hamrohshuda bo ziroat niz mashgul budand. Dar bayni Sarmatho tanazzuli sokhti avlodi va tashakkuli sinfho ogoz yofta, ashrofoni boi avlodiyu qabilavi, peshvoyoni harbi va dastahoi jangovaroni onho paydo shudand.

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Intishori Sarmatho va harakati onho ba Garb dar natijai ba dast darovardani charogohhoi nav, kushishi ba shahrho va rayonhoi ziroati ba maqsadi savdo va goratgari nazdik shudan ba amal meomad. Az asrhoi 3—2 to milod yak qismi Sarmatho dar hamvorihoi nazdi Kavkaz maskan girifta, qismi digarashon dar biyobonhoi shimoli nazdi bahri Siyoh davlati Sarmatiyaro tashkil kardand. Dar poyonobi daryoi Don va dar nazdi Kuban Sarmatho bo meotkho omekhta shudand. Dar okhiri asri 2 to milod dar muboriza bo podshohii Pont ittifoqchii skifho budand. Dar janghoi dokhilii davlati Bosfor ishtirok karda, voridi shahrhoi on meshudand. Dar asri 1 to milod ittifoqchii podshohii Pont dar muboriza ba muqobili Rim budand. Guruhi sharqii Sarmatho az jihati iqtisodi va siyosi bo davlathoi Osiyoi Miyona, khususan bo Khorazm aloqamand bud. Az asri 1 miloj ba Zakavkaziya yurishho tashkil namuda, ba sohilhoi daryoi Dunay omadand va dar nazdi sarhadi imperiyai Rim sokin shudand. Dar asrhoi avvali milod dar bayni Sarmatho alanho purzur gashtand. Dar asri 3 milod hokimiyati Sarmathoro dar qismi shimolii Nazdi bahri Siyoh gotho zarba zadand va asri 4 onhoro gunnho torumor kardaid. Yak qismi Sarmatho bo gotho va guniho dar muhojirati azimi khalqho ishtirok namudand. Dastahoi alohidai Sarmatho ba Ispaniya rafta, ba Afrikai Shimoli guzashtand. Guruhhoi Sarmatho, ki dar Janubi mamlakati mo monda budand, dar avvalhoi asrhoi miyona bo digar khalqho, aksaran bo slavyanho, bo khalqi qismi shimolii Kavkaz va qabilahoi turkizabon omekhta shudand.
Adabiyot: Smirnov K. F. Savromati. Rannyaya istoriya i kultura sarmatov, Moskva, 1964. ‘

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