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SARBAND

SARBAND, dargot, inshooti gidrotekhnikiest, ki baroi baland kardani sathi ob dar majroi obi ravon (daryo, kanal va gayra) sokhta meshavad. Sarbandro bo maqsadhoi istifodai energiyai ob, behtar namudani kishtigardi, obyori va gayra mesozand. Masalan, dar Tojikiston Sarbandhoi, Kanali Kaloni Hisor, daryoi Khonaqo, obanborhoi Muminobod va Selbur ba maqsadhoi irrigasiya, Sarbandi obanborhoi Kattasoy va Dahanasoy ba maqsadhoi obyorivu peshgirii obkheziho, Sarbandi Gidro Elektro Stansiyahoi Norak, Sarband, Qayroqqum boshad, ba maqsadhoi energetikiyu ir- rigasioni sokhta shudaand. . Sarband inshooti asosii gidrouzel meboshad.

sarband
Sokhtmoni Sarbandho az qadim mamul bud. Koftukovhoi arkheologi nishoi medihand, ki dar Misr 4000 sol pesh az milod, dar Hinduston 1000 sol pesh az milod, dar Gollandiya avvalhoi milod . Sarband va obbandho (dambaho) mesokhtand. Malumoti mavjuda dar borai avvalin Sarbandhoi dar Rossiya sohtashuda ba asri 13 mansuband. Dar asri 17 Sarbandhoi khokivu chubii balandiashon 6—7 metr sokhta, quvvai fishori hosil kardai onhoro baroi ba kor andokhtani moshinhoi korkhonahoi sanoati kogaz, ordkashi, mohutbarori va metallurgi istifoda meburdand. Dar nimai duyumi asri 19 fishori hosilkardai Sarbandhoro baroi istehsoli ener- giyai elektr istifoda meburdagi shudand. Istifodai beton va ohanubeton, inkishofn moshinsozi va mekhanikonii korhoi sokhtmon imkon dodand, ki majroi daryohoi kalontarin niz basta shavad. Dar in davra Sarbandhoe sokhta shudand, ki besh az 200 metr balandi doshtand. Dar davrai soveti sokhtmoni Sarbandho asosan badi qa- bul shudani plaii GOELRO rivoj yoft. To soli 1941 dahho . Sarbandhoi azim sokhta shudand ( Sarbandi Gidro Elektro Stansiyahoi Volkhov, Dnepr va gayra). Solhoi badi jang sokhtmoni Sarbandhoi gunogun avj girift (Sarbandi Gidro Elektro Stansiyahoi Kuybishev, Volgograd, Gorkiy va gayra). . Sarbandhoi kalontarini zamoni hozira Sarbandi Gidro Elektro Stansiyahoi Krasnoyarsk, Bratsk (Respublikai Sovetii Federativii Sotsialistii Rossiya), Tukhtagul (Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Qirgiziston), Chorbog (Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Uzbekiston), Norak va Rogun (Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Tojikiston) va gayra me- boshand.
Dar Tojikiston sokhtmoni Sarbandho tarikhi chandinasra dorad. Baroi obyorii zaminhoi koram Sarbandhoi khurd- khurd az zamonhoi qadim sokhta meshudand. Solhoi okhir az khud namudanp zakhirahoi energetikii daryohoi Tojikiston vusat yofta istodaast. Kalontarin Sarbande, ki dar daryoi Vakhsh sokhta shudaast, Sarbandi Gidro Elektro Stansiyai Norak meboshad, ki besh aa 300 metr balandi dorad. Alhol sokhtmoni Sarbandi Gidro Elektro Stansiyai Rogun davom dorad, ki balandii loihavii on 335 metr meboshad. Az. Sarbandhoi dar khorija sokhtashuda Sarbandi bisyorravoqai Bartlett (87 metr, Shtathoi Muttahidai Amerika, 1939), Sarbandi khoku sangii Miboro (131 metr, Yaponiya, 1961), Sarbandi betonii gravitasionii Grand-Diksans (284 metr, Shveysariya, 1961) va gayra qobili qaydand.
Sarbandro az masolehi gunogun: khok, sang, khoku sang, beton, ohanubeton va chub mesozand. Vobasta ba tainot Sarbandi obanbor va Sarbandi obbaror (faqat baroi baland kardani sathi befi bolo) mavjudand. Az rui fishori hosilshavandai ob Sarbandhoro shartan ba pastfishor (balandiash to 10 metr), mutadilfishor (az 10 to 40 metr) va balandfishor (besh az 40 metr) judo mekunand. Vobasta ba tainot dar tarkibi gidrouzel chunin navhoi Sarbandho mavjudand: m a h k a m (obnoguzar), ki faqat rohi obro mebandad; o b g u z a r, ki baroi shorida guzashtani obi ziyodati tajhizot dorad; stansioni, ki baroi guzarondani ob surokhhoi makhsus va baroi charkh zanondani turbinahoi Gidro Elektro Stansiya obravho dorad. Hangomi sokhtmo- ni Sarband nav va konstruksiyai onro vobasta ba tainot, sharoiti tabiii mahal, khususiyathoi gidrologii daryo, navi masolehi asosii binokori va gayra intikhob mekunand.
Sarbandi kh o k i qadimtarii va mamultarini navi Sarband meboshad. Onro odatan qisman yo purra az khoki namnogir mesozand. Sarbandi khoki ba navi Sarbandhoi mahkam mansub buda, az boloi tegai on ob nameguzarad. Khoki namnogire, ki ba nishebi boloi Sarband khobonda meshavad, ekran hosil mekunad, dar in hol dar qismi mobayn m a g z i Sarband hosil meshavad. In az khoki namgir yo masolehi sangi sokhtani qismi boqimondai Sarbandro imkonpazir megardonad (Sarbandi khoku sangii Gidro Elektro Stansiyai Norak az hamin qabil ast, rasmi 1). Dar qismi poyoni Sarband baroi dur kardani obhoi az tanai Sarband zahanda d r e n a j mesozand. Ba nishebi boloi Sarband baroi himoya ae tasiri mavjhoi ob plitahoi betoni mekhobonand yo sang merezand. Vobasta ba usuli khobondani khok Sarbandhoi khokiro bo tarzi shibba kardani khoki khushk va shustashavanda ravondan (loyqaro qabat ba qabat mekhobonand, ob zahira meravadu khok tahshin va zich shuda memonad) mesozand.
Sarbandi s a n g i bo rohi ba majroi ob khoboidani qabathoi gafsi sang, shagal, sangreza sokhta meshavad. Magzi in Sarband yo juzi markazii obnoguzari on (diafragma)-ro az ohanubeton, asfalt, chub, metall, masolehi polimeri tayyor mekunand. Agar az khoki asosi Sarband ob zahida guzarad, ba rui on qabati p o n u r (loy, bitum, torf, ohanubeton) mekhobonand, ki zahishi obro kam mekunad. Baroi guzarondani obi ziyodati dar in Sarbandho obravhoi makhsus mesozand.
Sarbandhoi balandi betoni va ohanubetoni dar zamoni hozira dar hamai mamlakatho sokhta meshavand.
11 i navi Sarbandhoro az rui konstruksiya va sharoiti korashon ba se guruh: gravitatsioni, ravoqshakl va tirgakdor judo mekunand. Dar Sarbandi gravitatsioni tasiri quvvahoi teladihandai ufuqi (fishori ob, yakh va gayra)-ro vazni khususii Sarband qabul mekunad. Sarbandi gravitatsioniro ham mahkam va ham obguzar mesozand. Sarbandhoi azim az betoni zich (obnoguzar), mustahkam va baqodor sokhta meshavand. Balandii Sarbandhoi betonii zamonavi besh az 200 metr meboshad. Masalan, balandii Sarbandi Boulder-Dam dar daryoi Kolorado (Shtathoi Muttahidai Amerika) ba 222 metr merasad. Sarbandhoi ravoqshakl tasiri quvvahoi ufuqiro asosan ba sohilho meguzaronand. Sharti asosin sokhtani Sarbandhoi ravoqshakl dar poyai Sarband va makhsusan dar sohilho mavjud budani devorahoi yaklukhti kuhi ba hisob meravad. Nisbati vusati dara bar balandii Sarband az 3—3,5 va boyad ziyod boshad. Misoli Sarbandhoi ravoqshakl dar Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti Soyuz Sovetskikh Sosialisticheskikh Respublik SSSR SarbandiGidro Elektro Stansiyaho GES-i Inguri -(Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Gurjiston) meboshad, ki 410 metr balandi dorad. Dar Sarbandhoi tirgakdor tasiri fishori obro devorahoi fi- shorbardor (kontrforsho) ba poyai Sarband meguzaronand. Baroi sokhtani in navi Sarbandho dar rui asos plitai tahkursi mekhobonand. Sarbandi tirgakdorro az beton, ohanubeton, bazan az chub va metall yo mahkam yo obguzar mesozand. Dar amaliyai sokhtmoni gpdrotekhniki beshtar Sarbandi betonii pastfishori obguzar mamul shudaast (rasmi 2).
Sarbandhoi chubii pastfishorro asosan dar mahalhoi serjangal mesozand, ki beshtar obguzar meboshand. Dar in Sarbandho tasiri quvvai fishori obro asosan konstruksiyahoi chubi qabul mekunand. Baroi guzaroodani obhoi ziyodati yo dar mavridi zaruri sar dodani obi befi bolo Sarbandho bo tajhizoti makhsusi obparto va zatvorho jihozonida meshavand. Sokhtmoni Sarbandhoi dar davrai hozira bo rohi ziyod kardani balandi pesh meravad. Rohhoi arzon kardani arzi- shi aslii sokhtmoni Sarbandho justuju karda meshavand. Nigared, niz Shlyuz, Silsilai stansiyahoi elektrii obi.
Adabiyot: G r i sh i n M. M.. Gidrotekhnicheskie soorujeniya, Moskva, 1968; Starikov V. A., D j u r a e v S. I., Sbornik, Narodno- khozyaystvennoe znachenie Nurekskoy Gidro Elektro Stansii GES, Dushanbe, 1964. S. Juraev.

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SAFA, nigared, Trikhofitiya.