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ShALGAM

shalgham

ShALGAM, saljam, lift (Vgav-slca gera), giyohi dusolaest az oilai chillikgulho. Yak nav bekhmevai turbmonandi khurdanist. Shalgam soli yakum barg mebarorad, soli duyum gul karda tukhm mebandad.

Shalgami khudruy malum nest. Taxmin mekunand, ki Shalgam dar kishvarhoi Osiyoi Pesh paydo shudaast. Dar Yunoni Qadim Shalgam chun mahsuloti khurokvori joi 3-yumro (badi galladona va angur) megirift. Dar hududi hozirai SSSR hanuz dar a. 11 Shalgam mekoshtand. Holo Shalgamro dar nohiyahoi gayrisiyohzamini mamlakatamon beshtar meparvarand. Shakl, hajm va rangi navhoi Shalgam (zard, surkh, bunafsh, safed) gunogunand. Vazni yak donai Shalgam az 20—30 g to 1 kg meshavad. Navhoi Shalgami peshpazak dar davomi 5—7 hafta, derpazak badi 10—12 hafta mepazand. Dar mamlakati mo beshtar navhoi «Petrovskaya 1» (nig. rasm), «Sloveskaya», «Mayskaya», inchunii navhoi mahallii Shalgami namangoni va samarkandiro mekorand. Az har ga kishti Shalgam 150—300 s hosil (bekhmeva) megundorand. Dar reslublikai mo Shalgai surkh va zard az qadim malum ast. Abuishoqi Atima guftaast:

Shalgam baroi rishta zi dasti piyozi tar,

Chandin malol didu dar okhir visol yoft.

Shalgam sabzavoti tezras va sergizost. Shalgam manbai vitamini S (to 63 mg%) ast. Dar on vitaminhoi Bi, V, RR, karotin niz mavjudand. Dar Shalgam 3,8—9% qand, 0,4—2% safeda, namakhoi minerali va g. hastand.

Shalgam rastanii doruii qadimist. Khususiyati shifobakhshi on ba Disquridus (Dioskorid, a. 1 m.), Zakariyoi Rozi, Aburayhoni Beruni, Abualii Sino malum bud. Mas., bino ba gufti Sino marhame, ki az tukhmi Shalgam tayyor mekunand, varami qadkashakro megardonad. Shalgam inchunin ba gurda, chashm va qafasi sina mufid ast. Quvvai bohro meafzoyad. Davoii Shalgam dar «Makhzan-ul-adviya»-i Muhammad Husayn (talifash 1776) chunin tavsif shudaast: «Tanovuli matbukhi on sergizo va rafkunandai sulfa va mulayini sina va shikam, muqavvii chashm va ishtihoovaravd. Va chun reshahoi boriki onro soida bo asal biyoshomand jihati sipurz va usrulbavl (dushvorii bavl) muqarrab. Va pukhtai on nestkunandai varamho..».

Tabiboni khalqi sharbati Shalgamro (shirai onro qand andokhta mejushonand) davoi khubi zangila (singa) mehisoband. Shalgamoba qotei balgam ast. Ba shakhsoni girmftori sulfa va ziqqinafas khele naf mebakhshad. Hangomi iltihobi uzvhoi hozima istifodai Shalgam zarar dorad.

Ad.: Hikmati asrho, L 1975; Sklprevskiy L Ya., selebnie svoystva pishevikh rasteniy M.. 1972; Matveev V. P., Rubsov M. I., Ovoshevodstvo, M., 1978.

M. Hojimatov.

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