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SAFOL

SAFOL, masnuot va ashyoest, ki dar natijai ba ham omekhtani gilmoya, khamirai mineralho, oksidho va digar moddahi gayriorganiki va pukhtan hosil meshavad. Hamirai Safol badi pukhtan sifatan tagyir yofta, ba materiali khubi silikati tabdil me- yobad. Safol dar ruzgor (zarfiyot), sokhtmon (khisht, safoli bompush, nova, safoltakhta, koshi, juzhoi mujassamaho), tekhnika, naqliyoti obiyu havoi va rohi ohan, sanati oroishi amali va haykaltaroshi bisyor istifoda meshavad. Navu namudhoi gunoguni Safol mavjud ast: gili sukhta, masnuoti kuloli, mino, chinii khom (fagfuri), chini, khokasang.

safol
Ocherki tarikhi. Avvalin namunahoi masnuoti safoli dar davrai paleoliti bolo paydo shudaand. Az gil tayyor kardani zarfhoro odamon dar davrai neolit (hazorai 6 to milod) az khud namudand. Minbad sanati kuloli pesh raft va namudhoi navi sofolot ba vujud omad. Nakhustin masnuoti safoli dar markazhoi qadimtarini ziroatkori, az jumla hududi Osiyoi Khurd, Eron sokhta shudaand (hazorai 7 to milod). Dar Osiyoi Miyona qadimtarin namunahoi masnuoti Safoli dar qabati poyonii magorai Jabal, ki mansubi madaniyati Jaytun ast (Turkmanistoni hozira) paydo shudaast. Qadimtarin namunahoi Safol durushtu soddaand. Az hazo- rai 6 to milod Safoli munaqqash mamul shud. Istehsoli chunin masnuot boisi murakkabii tekhnologiyai tayyor kardani mahsulot va pukhtani on gardid. Shakli masnuot mukammal shud, ba tarkibi gil khamirai digar moddaho mineralho va omekhtai rastani, ki badi khushkonidan Safolro mustahkam mekard, hamroh mekardand. Dar hazorahoi 4—2 to milod Safol dar nohiyahoi Baynannahrayn, Eron, Osiyoi Miyona, va Khitoy intishor yoft. Dar qismi janubii sharqii Evropa madaniyati Kukutenitpoliya pahn shud. Andozavu hajm, naqshunigor va tasvirhoi masnuoti Safoli hazorahoi 4— 3 to milod gunogunand. Uslubi nigorishi hayvonot, ki oi doroi kompozisiyai mukammal bud (masalan, dar Eron), mamul gardid. Makhsusan bozyofthoi Safolii janubi Turkmaniston purqimatand. Tekhnologiyai istehsoli masnuoti Safolii muttasil takmil meyoft. Dar hazorai 6 to milod dar Baynannahrayni Shimoli humdonhoi qadimi kuloli (dar Yarimteppa) mavjud budand. Dar hazorahoi 5—2 to milod khumdonhoi kuloli dar nohiyahoi Sharqi Miyona va Nazdik pahn shudand (nigared, Kuloli). Baroi pukhtani Safol dar hazorai 4 to milod khumdonhoi yakqabata va az nimai hazorai 3 to milod khumdonhoi duqabataro istifoda meburdand. Paydoishi mahsuloti sirdor ba inkishofi Safol tasiri kalon rasonid. Sirdavoni avval dar zargari, badtar dar sokhtmon va zarfhoi safoli istifoda meshud. Tadqiqot nishon medihad, ki mahsuloti sirdori qadim dar tar- kibash ishqor doshtaast. Dar hazorai 2 to milod Safoli sirdor dar memori istifoda gardid. Dar hazoram 1 to milod devori qasrhoi shohoni Oshur, Eron va Bobul bo Safoli sirdor — koshi oro meyoftand. Dar masnuoti sirdori qadima odatan rangi osmonii sabzfom, firuzi va zard bartari dosht. Dar nimai duyumi hazorai 1 to milod— nimai yakumi hazorai 1 milo davrai navi inkishofi istehsoli masnuoti Safoli sar shud. Hunarmandoni Yunon angobhoi surkhu siyoh, lokhoi yunoniro istifoda burda, dar in kor hissai bu- zurg guzoshtand. Tariqi istehsoli lokhoi yunoni to okhir ba muta- khassison ifsho nagardidaast. Tadqiqi lokhoi yunoniyon nishon dod, ki tarzu tayyor namudani onho gunogun buda, ranghoi minerali, bazan khokistari makhsusi rastanihoro istifoda meburdand. Dar sanati kuloli istifoda namudani lok baroi inkishofi istehsoli Safoli angobi imkoniyati ziyod faroham ovard. Namunahoi zebo va khushsifati masnuoti angobi dar yodgorihoi Khorazm, Port va Bokhtar mamul budand. Komyobii digari istehsoli Safol istifodai siri firuzarang, sabzi firuzatob va zard, makhsusan siri ishqordor bud. Masnuoti sirdor dar Hinduston va Osiyoi Miyona niz istehsol meshudand.
Davrai komilan navi inkishofi istehsoli masnuoti Safoli ba asrhoi 8—11 rost meoyad. Dar in davr usuli navi sirdavoni mamul gardid. In usul ba istifodai angobi safed, khokai surb va naqshhoi mulavvan asos yoftaast. Baroi rangubor jinshoi minerali va oksidi fuluzot — ohan, surma, marganesro ba kor meburdand. Raviya yo maktabhoi gunoguni bo markazhoi istehsoli Safol, aloqamand dar Eron (Nishopur, Koshon va gayra) va Osiyoi Miyona (Afrosiyob, Marv, Khutalon, Istaravshai) paydo shudand. Dar in jo asrhoi 11—12 istifodai koshi ba hukmi anana daromad. Avval khishthoro sir meda- vondand, ki namunahoi nisbatan qadimai on dar Maqbarai Sulton Saodat (asri II) va Manorai Kalon (soli 1127) vomekhurand. Az asrhoi 13—14 sarkarda, masnuoti sirdori Safoli dar sokhtmoni binohoi Sharqi Nazdik va Miyona, Osiyoi Miyona mamul gardid — maqbarai Bayonqulikhon dar Bukhoro (1358), maqbarai Muhammadi Bashoro dar Panjakent (1342—43), silsilai maqbarahoi Shohi Zinda, Bibi- khonim, Oqsaroy dar Samarqand, maqbarai Ahmadi Yasavi dar Turkiston va gayra. Dar sarzamini Rus dar asri 10 usuli sirdavoni pesh raft. Badi tanazzuli hokimiyati mugulho dar in sarzamin kosiboni rus ba istehsoli masnuoti Safoli avji toza bakhshidand. Dar asrhoi 14—15 Moskva markazi kaloni istehsoli masnuoti Safoli gardid. Az asri 15 dar Evropa istehsoli masnuoti Safoli ba digarguni duchor shud. Dar Italiya khamirai silikatii gilin— fagfuri ikhtiro shud, ki on ba inkishofi mahsuloti safolii bisyor mamlakatho asos guzosht. Dar Faensa, Siena, Urbino, Gubio va gayra markazhoi kaloni istehsoli masnuoti Safoli ba vujud omadand. Dar Evropa (asri 17) az khud namudani tekhnologiyai navi chini boisi inkishofi masnuoti safoli gardid. Dar Rossiya (asri 17) ustokhonahoi kaloni manufakturi va soli 1744 dar Peterburg avvalin zavodi davlatii chinivori (holo zavodi ba nomi M. V. Lomonosov) tasis yoft. Dar Osiyoi Miyona raviyahoi ba mahal khosi istehsoli Safol muttasil inkishof meyoft. Dar asrhoi 18—19 markazhoi kalon va maktabhoi khosi istehsoli masnuoti Safoli dar Samarqand, Rishton, Gijduvon, Bukhoro, Shahrisabz, Toshkent, Kheva, Khujand, Qaratog ba avji inkishof rasida, mohiyati khudro dar tuli asrhoi 19—20 nigoh doshtand. Holo kulolon va ofarandagoni masnuoti Safoli dar ustokhonahoi hunar- mandi, artelho va muassisahoi hunarmandii nazdi fondi badeii res publika muttahid shudaand. Kuloli makhsusan dar Chorkuh, Isfara, Konibodom, Qaratog va gayra inkishof yoftaast. Holo istehsoli masnuoti Safoli (vobasta ba navho, khususiyathoi tekhnologi, tainot, sifati oroishi masolehi navi tekhniki, sistemai istehsoli molhoi sermasrif) dar muassisahoi kaloni mekhanikonidashuda surat megirad.
Tekhnologiyai istehsolot. Ofaridani masnuoti Safoli prosessi murakkabi tekhnologi buda, tayyor kardani gilmoya, qolibgiri, oroish va pukhtani onro dar bar megirad. Du navi masnuotn Safoli mavjud ast: zich (obguzaroniash na besh az 5%) va kovok. Safol durusht va nafis (fayans) meshavad. Sifati Safol ba intikhobi masoleh, korkardi ashyoi khom, qolibgiri va pukhtani on vobasta ast. Baroi ofaridani masnuoti Safoli gilmoyai chandir mustahkam va muvo- fiqro (gili kuloli) intikhob menamoyand. Baroi tayyor kardani gilmoya jinshoi gunogun: reg, shamot, khokasang, kaolinho, kvars, omekhtai ordahoi rastaniro ba kor mebarand. Dar natijai mayda kardan va omekhtani in jinsho gilmoya yo khamirai tayyor hosil meshavad, ki bad onro ba qolab merezand. Dar zamonhoi qadimtarin (masnuoti Safoli bo yorii qolabho sokhta meshud. Usuli digari ofaridani masnuoti Safoli dar shakli spirali ba ham chasponidani porchahoi alohidai gilmoya ast. In usul dar Amerika, Afrika, Hinduston, Osiyoi Miyona malum bud. Ihtiroi charkhi kuloli boisi samaranokii mehnati hunarmandon va sarfa shudani vaqti kori gardid. Sirdavoni, boisi baland shudani sifat va qimati badeii masnuoti Safoli gardid. Pukhtan va obutob dodan zinai okhirnig istehsoli masnuoti safolist. Masoleh badi pukhtan sifatan beh meshavad. Obi gil khorij shuda, jinshoi tarkibi gilmoya shakl va khosiyati khudro digar mekunand. Tarkibi gilmoya tagyir meyobad, judoshavii karbon, obkhorijkunii gidroslyudaho, digargunshavii masolehi kvarsi, fazahoi mullit, anortit va gayra ba vuqu meoyad. Obutoo yoftani masnuoti Safoli ba prosessi pukhtani gilmoya, tarkibi khimiyavi, harorat va rioyai rejimi tafsonidani khumdon vobasta ast. Zarfiyoti muqarrariro odatan dar harorati 950″, khishtro dar 2000° obutob medihand. Baroi pukhtani masnuoti Safoli inchunin rioyai rejim, yane ba inobat giriftani sharoit, tobovari, tadrijan baland kardani harorat niz sharti muhim ast. Avval masnuoti Safoliro dar otashdonhoi muqarrari mepukhtand. Ikhtiroi khumdon komyobii buzurgi istehsoli masnuoti Safoli bud. Khumdonhoi Safol-pazi prosessi murakkabi tarikhiro az sar guzarondaast. Vobasta ba andoza va tarzi harakati alanga khumdonhoi gunogun ba vujud oma- dand. Dar inshooti tekhnikii zamonavi pukhtani Safol vobasta ba khususiyathoi ashyoi khom, gilmoya, harorat, sifati masnuot va gayra dar asosi hisobu kitobi daqiq ba roh monda shudaast. Dar sharoiti hozira baroi pukhtani masnuoti Safoli khumdonhoi muqarrarii yakqabatayu duqabata, khumdonhoi gazi, mudavvar va quburshaklro istifoda mebarand. Solhoi okhir navhoi gunoguni masnuoti Safoli meafaoyad, usulhoi tekhnologi va zaminai tekhnikii istehsoli on takmil meyobad.
Adabiyot: Kverfeld E. K.. Keramika Blijnego Vostoka, Leningrad, 1947; A v gu s t i n i k A. I., Keramika, Moskva, 1957; P e sh e r e v a E. M., Gonchagrnoe proizvodstvo Sredney Azii, Moskva—Leningrad, 1957; R a kh i m o v M. K., Khudojestvennaya keramika Uzbe- kistana, Tashkent, 1961; Sayko E. V., Istoril tekhnologii keramicheskogo remesla Sredney Azii VIII—XII vekov., Dushanbe, 1966; V u l a v i n II. L. Teplotekhnika v proizvodstve farfora i fayansa, Moskva, 1977. E. V. Sayko.

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SAGIR

SAGIR, nigared, Sugur.