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Respublikai Nauru

Nauru (Nauru), Respublikai Nauru, davlat dar jazirai Nauru dar qismi janubu garbii uqyonusi Orom. Masohat taqriban 22 km2. Aholiash ziyoda az 8 hazor nafar (1980), ki ziyoda az nisfi on tahjoi — nauriho mebo­shand, boqimonda — khitoiho, evropoiho va gayra. Taqriban 65% akholi dindoron — protestantho. Zaboni rasmi — naurui va anglisi. Mamlakat ba 14 okrug taqsim meshavad. Markazi mamuri — okrugi Yaren.

Nauru azoi Ittihodi Britaniyai Kabir meboshad. Konstitusiyai amalkunandaash soli 1968 qabul shudaast. Sardori davlat va hukumat— prezi­dent ast, ki ba muhlati 3 sol intikhob meshavad. Organi qonunbaror — Assambleyai qonunbaror. Sistemai sudiash — Sudi oli va sudhoi mahalli. Dar mamlakat yak partiyai siyosi hast, ki Partiyai Nauru nom dorad va soli 1976 tasis shudaast. Yagona tashkiloti ittifoqhoi kasaba Tash- kiloti korkunoni sanoati istehsoli fosforit (tasisash soli 1953).

Nauru atolle meboshad, ki bo harakati tektoniki bardoshta va bo devori kharsanghoi marjonii zeriobi ihota shudaast. Kuli shirinobi na on qadar kaloni laguni dorad. Sathash pushtakuh buda (balandiash to 70 metr), dar sohilho maydonchahoi borik mavjud ast. Lagunahoi kuhna konhoi kaloni fosforit dorand. Iqlimash ekvatori va namnok. Ha- rorat miyonai mohola nazdiki 28° Selsiya. Borishoti solona ba hisobi miyona taqriban 450 millimetr. Nabototash — jangalhoi sakhtbargi safedcha. Faunaash khususiyati jaziragi dorad (parrandahoi bisyori bahri, hasharot). Asosi iqtisodiyoti Naururo istehsol va eksporti fosforitho, ki az soli 1970 dar dasti davlat ast, tashkil medihad. Zakhirai fosforitho qarib 42 million tonna, istehsolash taqriban 2,1 million tonna (1979). Ziroathoi tropiki (nakhli nordil, banan va gayra) parvarish mekunad. Hunarhoi dasti va mohidori ravnaq yoftaast. Nauru asosan fosforitho, inchunin kopra (magzi nor- jil)-ro ba Avstraliya, Zelandiyai Nav va Yaponiya eksport mekunad. Az khorija boshad, khurokvori, suzishvori, tajhizot baroi istehsoli fosforitho va molhoi sanoati meorad. Dar Nauru yak rohi shossei daroziash 20 killometr hast. Parki avtomobiliash ziyoda az 2000 avtomobilhoi sabukravu borkash va motosiklho dorad. Vohidi pul dollari avstraliyagi.

Talimi bachahoi 6—17 sola hatmist. Soli tahsili 1975/76 dar 3 maktabi ibtidoi 1,5 hazor nafar, dar 2 maktabi miyona taqriban 500 nafar talaba mekhond. Naura soli 1798 kashf karda shudaast. Soli 1888 Germaniya anneksiya karda, Naururo ba yak qismi protekto­rati Gvineyai Nav tabdil dod. Dar davrai Jangi Yakumi Jahon onro qushunhoi Avstraliya ishgol namudand (1914). Badi jang Nauru territoriyai zerimandatii Britaniyai Kabir, Ze­landiyai Nav va Ittifoqi Avstra­liya shud. Solhoi 1942—45 onro Yapo­niya istilo karda bud. Dar solhoi 50 dar mamlakat muboriza baroi istiqloliyat avj girift. Soli 1966 mamlakat ba huquqi khudidorakuni sohib shud. Az 1968 Nauru davlati mustaqil — Respublikai Nauru elon gardid.

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BOYSUNTOG

BOYSUNTOG, kuh dar Jumhurii Uzbekiston. Shokhai janubi garbii qatorkuhi Hisor. Bakhshgohi daryohoi Surkhon va Sherobod. …