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Respublikai Nakhjuvon

Nakhjuvon Respublikai Avtono­mii Sovetii Sotsialisti (Nakhjivan Mukhtar Sovet Sosialist Respublikasi), RASS Nakhjuvon. Dar hayati RSS Ozarboyjon 9 fevral 1924 tashkil yoft. Dar qismi janubi garbii Zakavkaziya joy giriftaast. Dar Janub va Garb bo Eron va Turkiya hamsarhad meboshad. Masohatash 5,5 hazor km2. Aholiash 247 hazor nafar (1981). Az jihati mamuri ba 5 rayon taqsim shuda, 3 shahr va 3 ptsh dorad. Shahrho: Nakhjuvon, Julfa, Urdubod, Markazash — sh. Nakhjuvon.

Respublika bo ordeni Lenin (1967) va ordeni Dustii khalqho (1972) mukofotonida shudaast.

Konstitutsiyai joriro sessiyai 8- umi gayrinavbatii Soveti Olii RASS Nakhjuvon 30 mai 1978 qabul kardaast. Organi Olii hokimiyati davlati — Soveti Olii RASS Nakhjuvon (ba muhlati 5 sol intikhob karda mesha­vad), dar bayni sessiyaho — Prezi- diumi Soveti Olii respublika. Soveti Oli hukumati respublika — So­veti Vazironro tashkil medihad. Organhoi mahallii hokimiyati davlati: Sovethoi deputathoi khalqii rayoni, shahri, posyolkavi va qishloqi. Sistemai sudi: .Sudi Olii RASS Nakhjuvon va sudhoi khalqii rayoni.

            Tabiat. Nakhjuvon qismi janubi sharqii kuhsori Zakavkaziyaro ishgol mekunad. Qarib 75% territoriyai on dar balandii 1000 metr az sohili bahr voqe ast. Dar Shimol qatorkuhi Daralagez, dar Sharq qatorkuhi Zangizur (nuqtai balandtarinash kuhi Kapijik, 3904 metr) joy giriftaast. Dar qismi janub va janubi garbi vodii daryoi Araks voqest. Sarvathoi zerizamini: madanhoi mo­libden, surb, ruh, mis, namaksang, sulfur, sanghoi binokori va gayra. Ziyoda az 200 chashmai minerali do­rad. Iqlimash nihoyat kontinenti. Harorat miyonai yanvar dar hamvoriho 3 va —6°Selsiya, dar kuhho —10—14° Selsiya; iyul muvofiqan 28° Selsiya va az 25° to 5°Selsiya. Borishoti solona 300—500 millimetr. Kalontarin daryoho: Araks bo shokhobhoyash Arpachay, Nakhjuvonchay, Alinchachay, Gelonchay, Urdubodchay va gayra. Khokhoyash asosan buri, khokistarang, dorchinrang meboshand. Dar hamvoriho shibog va shura, dar kuhiston rastanihoi balandkudi dash- ty, subalpy va alpy meruyand. Dar balandidoi 1700—2350 m jo-jo be- shado vomekhurand. Olami hayvonot: buzi kuhi, muflon, khirs, babr, guroz, ruboh; az parrandaho murgi hilol, kabk va gayra.

            Malumoti tarikhi. Odam dar territoriyai respublika hanuz az davrai neolit maskan giriftaast. Dar asrhoi 8—7 to m. Nakhjuvon ba hayati davlathoi Mana va Mod, dar asrhoi 6— 2 to m. ba hayati davlati Hakhomanishiyon, dertar ba hayati davlati Atropaten dokhil meshud. Nakhjuvonro asrho 3 m. forsho, asrho 7 arabho, asrho 11 saljuqiho zabt kardand; sh. Nakhjuvon (qarorgohi sulton Alparslon) dar asri 12 poytakhti davlati Ildagizho bud.

Dar asrhoi 13—15 tamomi territoriyai Nakhjuvon ze­ri hukmi mugulho va Temur, tobei davlathoi Qaroquyunlu va Oqquyun- lu, dar asrhoi 16—17 asri hukmi davlati Safaviyon bud. Dar asri 17 dar Nakhjuvon taqti rohbarii Gurugli harakati dehqoni va ziddifeodali vusat yoft.

Dar asri 18 khonii sohibikhtiyori Nakhjuvon ba vujud omad. Dar natijai jangi Rossiyayu) Eron (1826—28) muvofiqi Sozishnomai Turkmansoy (1828) khonii Nakhjuvon ba Rossiya hamrod karda shud. Dar avvali asri 20 nakhustin yacheykahoi s.-d. v a tashkiloti «Gummet» ba vujud omadand. Bahor va tobistoni 1917 dar Nakhjuvon, Julfa va stansiyai rohi ohan Shohtakhta Sovetho tashkil shudand,’ ammo dar asl hokimiyat  monandi peshtara boz chande dar dasti beku khonho mond. Iyuni 1918 in kishvarro turkho, noyabr anglisho ishgol  kardand;

Soli 1919 zeri hukmi dashnakhoyu musovotchiyon bud. 28 iyuli 1920 dar Nakhjuvon Hokimiyati Soveti elon karda shud. Fevral 1923 kishvari  avtonomii Nakhjuvon tashkil gardid, ki on fevrali 1924 ba RASS Nakhjuvon tabdil yoft. 18 apreli 1926 avvalin Konstitusiyai RASS Nakhjuvon qabul karda shud. Dar davrai Jangi Buzurgi Vatani mehnatkashoni res­publika dar front va aqibgoh mardonagi va qahramoni zohir namudand. Hazorho nakhjuvoniho bo orde­nu medalho mukofotonida shuda, se nafari onho sazovori nomi balandi Qahramoni Ittifoqi Soveti shudand.

Khojagii khalqi Nakhjuvon doroi khojagii qishloqi sersoha va sanoati mutaraqqi ast. Sanoati khurokvori 62% mahsuloti sanoatro medihad. Dar Nakhjuvon zavodhoi obi minerali (Badamlakh va Sirob), kombinati konserv (Urdubod), kombinati gusht, zavodhoi vino, kombinati ravganu panir, fabrikai tamoku (Nakhjuvon) va gayra hastand. Sanoati istikhroji madan (konhoi Paragasoy va Nakhjuvon), moshinsozi va korkardi metall (zavodhoi elektrotekhnikii Nakhjuvon va tamiri avtomobilhoi Shakhbuz) taraqqi kardaand. Kalontarin sa­noati sabuki Nakhjuvon zavodi pakhtatozakunii Ilichyovsk, fabrikai shohibofii Urdubod va fabrikai duzandagii Nakhjuvon. Dar nazdikii Nakhjuvon marmar hosil namuda, namaksang, ma- danhoi molibden va surb niz istikhroj mekunand. Dar respublika fabrikai mebel, zavodhoi radiotekhniki va ta­miri avtomobil mavjudand. Xojagii qishloqi Navjuvon niz rivoju ravnaq dorad. Zaminho asosan obyorishavandaand. Ziroati asosi: tamoku va galla (asosan gandum). Dar domanai kuhu teppaho bogdori, tokparvari va kirmakdori taraqqi kardaast. Az chorvo asosan gusfand meparvarand. Respublika soli 1981 68700 govu barzagov, 288600 sar gusfandu buz dosht. Az territoriyai respublika rohi ohani Boku — Ere­van meguzarad.

            Nigahdorii tandurusti. Soli 1981 dar Nakhjuvon 46 bemorkhona, 52 ambulato- riyayu poliklinika bud va dar onho 503 dukhturu 2374 nafar korkuni miyonai tibbi kor mekard. Dar territoriyai res­publika chashmahoi mineralii Bodomli, Sirob, Daratog, Qizilvon va gayra hastand.

            Madaniyat. To Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sotsialistii Ok­tyabr 98% aholi besavod bud. Dar sekhi fabrikai pillaresii Urdubod solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti talimi umumi  jory gardid, besavodi barham doda shud. Soli tahsili 1980/81 dar Nakhjuvon 218 maktabi malumoti umumi, 4 maktabi miyonai makhsus, Instituti davlatii pedagogi amal mekard. Soli 1980 dar Nakhjuvon 236 klub, 239 kitobkhonai ommavi, 3 muzey, teatri dramai mu- siqi bud. Dar respublika 5 gazeta az jumla gazetai respublikavii «Sharg gapisi» («Darvozai Sharq», az soli 1921) nashr meshavad. Barnomahoi ra­dio ba zabonhoi ozari, armani va rusi shunavonida meshavad. Markazi televizion az soli 1963 kor mekunad.

Az territoriyai RASS Nakhjuvon bisyor osori madaniyati qadima (asbobhoi az birinji, sang, gil sokhtashuda), boqimondakhoi imoratkhoi okhiri hazorai 2—1 to metr, oromgohhoi manoradori asrhoi miyona mahfuz mondaand. Dar Nakhjuvon sanati memorii mahalli hanuz dar asrhoi miyona tashakkul yoftaast: YOdgorihoi Juga, Qaroboglar va binohoi istiqomatii Ur­dubod (asrhoi 18—19) shohidi onand. Dar Nakhjuvon asosguzori sanati tasvirii realistii Ozarboyjoni so­veti B. Sh. Kengerli zindagy va kor kardaast. Bisyor namudhoi sanati oroishi-amali (shohibofi, qolinbofi, gulduzi, kandakori va gayra) az davrahoi qadim inkishof yoftaast. Soli 1970 shubai nakhjuvonii IR RSS Ozarboyjon tasis yoft.

Adabiyot: 40 let Nakhichevanskoy ASSR, Ba­ku, 1964; Abasov M. A., Geomorfolo­giya Nakhichevanskoy ASSR, Baku, 1970.

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