Malumoti ohirin

REGISTON

REGISTON, maydoni rasmi va markazii shahrhoi kaloni Osiyoi Markaziro nomand. Regitonhoi Samarqand va Bukhoro az jumlai inshooti mashhuri shahrsozii asrhoi miyona meboshand. Makhsusan Registoni Samarq a n d yake az inshooti namoyoni memori ba hisob meravad. On az zamonhoi qadim vujud doshtaast. Dar joi hozirai Registon avval bozor, ustokhonayu dukonhoi hunarmandi budaand. Bino ba sarchashmaho, asri 14 dar Registon masjidi jome va rastai pushidai savdo — timi telpakfurushon mavjud budaast. Dar avvali asri 15 Registon hamchun markazi savdoyu hunarmandi shuhrat yoft va maydoni markazii shahr gardid. Ii bo sokhta shudani ansamblhoi memorie aloqamand ast, ki yake az nishonahoi khosi memorii asri 15-ro tajassum mekunad. Shaklgirii ansambli Registon bo sokhtmoni Madrasai Ulugbek (141(7—20), ki dar qismi garbii maydon joygir ast, ogoz yoft. Madrasa rostkunja buda, daromadgohi on bo peshtoqi muhtashami munaqqashu khotamkori zinat yoftaast.

registon-maydon

Az du pahlui peshtoq du qator toqhoi gulkori sokhta shudaand. Girdogirdi havlii on az hujrahoi duqabatai ayvonchador, darskhona, masjid iborat buda, bo devori mustahkam ihota gardidaast; dar chor gushai madrasa guldastaho-manoraho voqeand (holo se manora boqi mondaast). Gayr az daromadgohi kalon, ki dar tarafi sharqii bino joygir ast, az Janub va Sharq niz daromadgoh dorad. Naqshunigori madrasa ba sokhti bino muvofiq buda, bandubasti yaklukht dorad. Devoru manorahoi madrasa koshikoriyu khotamkori buda, memoron izorahoi marmariro niz istifoda burdaand. Dar asri 15 dar tarafi sharqii maydon khonaqoh (1424), dar shimoli on korvonsaroi Mirzoi, dar tarafi janubiash masjidhoi Olika Kukaltosh (.1430), Masjidi Muqatta va madrasai Abusaidkhon sokhta shud. Az in binoho to zamoni mo faqat madrasai Ulugbek boqi mondaast. Hangomi aznavsozii Regitson dar asri 17 binohoi digarro vayron karda, ba joyashon binohoi nav sokhtand. Dar joi khonaqohi farsuda Madrasai Sherdor bino shud (1619—36), ki usluban ba Madrasai Ulugbek khele shabohat dorad. Peshtoqi on chun peshtoqi Madrasai Ulugbek buda, memor tavonistaast ansambli yagonai binohoi ba ham mutanosibu mu-tavoziro ba miyon orad. Vale usuli naqshunigoru rangubor va oroishoti Madrasai Sherdor az binoi 200 sol muqaddam sokhtashudai muqobilash farq mekunad. Oroishi koshii peshtoqi Madrasai Sherdor tasviroti jolibi diqqat dorad: shere ba gizoli khushandom hamlavar buda, dar pasi sher tasviri oftobi durakhshon mavjud ast. Jussai sher va nurhoi Oftob bo ranghoi zardu dorchini naqshunigor shudaand, sathi safedrangi oftob boshad, bo jussai safedi gizol khele mohirona mutobiq gardonida shudaast. Dar oroishi madrasa ranghoi zardu sabz beshtar istifoda shuda, dar ihotai ranghoi digar ba-ralotar ba nazar merasand. Dar oroishi madrasa naqshhoi islimi, handasi va kitobahoro istifoda burdaand. Ba nazar chunin merasad, ki gue sathi berunii bino ba chand hissai alohidai kompozitsionii naqshin judo shudaast. Harchand ki naqshunigori bino purpechutobu serjuziyot ast, vale in qimati onro hargiz past namekunad. Dertar dar joi korvonsaroi Mirzoi Madrasai Tillokori qomat afrokht (1646—60). Bo in madrasa ansambli Registon purra shakl girifta, ba hamon namud to imruz barjost. Binohoi ansambl va markazi maydon dar masofai yakkhela voqe gardidaand. Madrasai Tillokori bo peshtoqi ajoibsokhtash az du madrasai digar farq mekunad. Oroishoti namoyu peshtoqi on taqlidi mahzi tazyinoti madrasahoi digar ast. In jo ham ranghoi zardu sabz beshtar istifoda shuda, oburangi binoro to andozae kohondaand. Namoi asosi, inchunin tamomi devorhoi madrasa bo khishtchahoi sirdori khele mayda rukash shudaand. Intereri bino beshtar bo usuli naqqoshii kundal oro yofta, az in ru, tillokori nom giriftaast. Naqshhoi islimiash yak andoza past-tarand.

Registoni Bukhoro, maydoni on dar asri 7, hangome ki hokimi shahr arki khudro bino kard, paydo shud. Dar tarafi garbii ark may-doni regpush voqe gardida bud. Dar tuli asrhoi ziyod dar in maydon qasru binohoi gunogun sokhta shuda, bo mururi zamon az bayn raftand. To asri 1(9 dar Registon madrasahoi Dorushshifo, Bozori gusfand, masjidhoi Mehtarshobek, Ustoruhi, khonaqohi Abdulazizkhon vujud doshta, az onho tanho ansambli masjidi Bolohavz to zamoni mo rasidaast. Dar markazi ansambi havzi hashtgushae voqest, ki bo takhtasangho rukash shuda, dar davomi du asr bino yoftaast. Dar qismi garbii havz binoi muhtashami masjid qomat afrokhtaast (17:12), ki tolori kaloni gunbazdor, hujra va ayvoni duqabata dorad. Ibtidoi asri 20 dar tarafi janubi maydon, bayni havz va ayvon az khishti pukh-ta manorae sokhtand, ki ba manorai Kalon monandn dorad. Dar tarafi Janub va Sharqi masjid du madrasai khurdi yakqabata bino yoftaast. Ansambl dar ibtidoi asri 20 purra shakl girift. Ansambl bo usuli koshikori, gajkori, munabbatkori va kandakori oro yoftaast. Registonhoi Samarqand va Bukhoro az yodgorihoi nodiri memorii Osiyoi Miyona ba hisob meravand.

 

Adabityo: M a s s o n M. E., Registan i ego medrese, Tashkent, 1926; P u g a ch e n-k o v a G. A., R e m p e l L. I., Vidayushiesya pamyatniki arkhitekturi Uzbe-kistana, Tashkent, 1958; P u g a ch e n k ov a G. A., Samarkand, Bukhara, Moskva. 1968; VIA, tom 8, Moskav, 1969. R. Dovoboev.

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