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REFORMATSIYa

REFORMATSIYa (az lotini geGogsha- So — aznavsozi, isloh), junbishi jamiyatiyu siyosi va ideologiero guyand, ki dar Evropai Garbi va Markazi dar asri 16 sar zada bud; asosan mohiyati ziddifeodali doshta, bar ziddi kalisoi katoliki (poyai ideologii sokhti feodali) jarayon girifta bud. Ideologhoi Reformatsiya tezisero ba miyon guzoshtand, ki mohiyatan zarurati kalisoi katoliki va papayu ruhoniyonro inkor mekard. Reformistho «Katibai muqaddas»-ro manbai yagonai haqiqati dini elon karda, «Rivoyati muqaddas»-ro rad kardaand. Onho tasisi «kalisoi sodda»-ro talab namuda, huquqi onro ba boigarihoi zamin va gayra mahqum kardaand.

reformaciya1

Reformatskiy ba yakchand raviyaho, az qabili byurgeriyu burjuazi (Moter, J. Kalvin, U. Svipgli), khalqi (ifodakunandai manfiathoi dehqonon va benavoyoni shahr) va shohiyu knyazi (dar mamlakathoi Skandinaviya va Angliya) taqsim meshavad. Jangi dehqonon dar Germaniya (1524—26) nuqtai olii harakati reformisti ba shumor meraft. Dar Daniya in harakat bo sardorii X. Tausen avj girifta, ba Norvegiya, Islandiya, Finlyandiya niz tasir rasond. Dar Shveysariya avval shakli svinglichigiro girifta, badi muvaffaqiyat paydo na- kardani harakati anabaptistho dar solhoi 40 asri 16 ba jarayoni navi harakati reformisti—kalvinizm tabdil yoft, ki badtar dar tamomi Evropa, az jumla Fransiya, Avstriya, Vengriya va digar mamlakatho hamchun ideologiyai burjuaziyai tavlidshavanda khizmat kard. Shaklhoi radikalii harakati reformisti ba sokhti feodali tahdid mekard. Solhoi 50 asri 16 bo rohbarii papa harakati ziddireformisti tashkil yoft, ki on dar Germaniya, Polsha ba Reformatsiya zarba zad va dar Italiyavu Ispaniya peshi rohi intishori Reformatsiyaro girift. Dar Niderland kalvinizm bayraqi ideologii revolyutsiyai burjuazi gardid. Dar Angliya boshad, shoh sardori kalisoi anglikani elon shud va dar nimai duyumi asri 16 kalvinizm vase intishor yoft.
Umuman harakati reformisti marhalai muqimi muboriza ba muqobili feodalizm bud, ki dar natijai on kalisoi katoliki mavqei monopolistii khudro dar Evropai Garbi az dast dod. Dar yak qator mamlakatho (Germaniya, Shveysariya, Skandinaviya, Angliya, Shotlandiya, Niderland va gayra) kalisohoi anglikani ba vujud omadand. Kashida giriftani zaminhoi kaliso asosi iqtisodii kalisoi katolikiro sust kard. Dar in mamlakatho Reformatsiya tartiboti kalisoro khele sodda va kalisoro bo davlat vobasta kard va dar natija diktaturai dini shikast khurd. Reformatsiya okhirin harakati buzurgi ziddifeodali bud.
Ananahoi reformisti dar dini islom va digar dinhoi Sharq dar davrai tabdili kapitalizm ba imperializm va paydoishi ruhiyai ziddimustamlikavii khalqhoi mazlum ba vuqu payvast. Inkishofi Reformatsiya dar davrai muborizai bayni kapitalizm va sotsializm rohi inkishofi nazariyavii modernizmi dini gardid. Reformatsiyai islom sharhi majmui masalahoi iqtisodivu siyosi va diniyu akhloqiro dar bar megirift.
Adabiyot: M a r k s Karl, K kritike gegelevskoy filosofii prava. Vvedenie. Marks Karl, Engels Fridrikh, Sochinenie, 2 izdanie, tom 1; E ngels Fridrikh, Sarsukhan ba «Jangi dehkonon dar Germaniya», Asarho, mundarija, jildi I, Dushanbe, 1963; Shtern L., Ideologicheskaya i politicheskaya rol reformasii v proshlom i v nastoyashem, dar kitobi: Ejegodnik germanskoy istorii (1968), Moskva, 1969; Rouzental Fransiya.. Torjestvo znaniya, Moskva, 1978. S. Ahmadov, K. YOqubov.

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