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Pertashevchiyon

Pertashevchiyon, j a m i ya t i petrashevchiyon, krujoki petrashevchiyon, ishtirokchiyoni krujoki siyosii M. V. Petrashevskiy. ki solhoi 1845—1849 dar Peterburg vujud dosht. Maqsadi Petrashevchiyon muboriza bar ziddi mutlaqiyat va krepostnoychigi bud. V. I. Lenin navishta bud, ki paydoishi intelligensiyai sotsialisti «az krujoki petrashevchiyon» ogoz meyobad (As., ch. 7. s. 30). Dar bayni Pertashevchiyon dar barobari dvoryanho raznochihoo — N. A. Speshney. A. V. Khapikov, D. D. Akhsharumov, N. A. Mombelli. P. S. Kashkin, F. M. Dostoevskiy va digaron niz budand. Aqidahoi siyosii Petrashevschiyon gunogun bud, vale aksariyati onho ba hokimiyati podshohi nafrat doshtand, payravoni sotsializmi khayoli budand, ba revolyutsiyai dehqonon tayyori medidand.

Petrashevchiyon dar majlisho masalahoi ozod kardani dehqonon, bo respublikai demokrati ivaz kardani mutlaqiyat, muqarrarkunii sudi kushod va sudhoi intikhobi, ozodii matbuot. propagandai goyahoi penqadami ijtimoiyu siyosiro dar bayni omma muhokima mekardand. Bisyor Petrashevschiyon dar mavqei materializmi tomarksisti meistodand, ateist budand, bo ide­ologiyai rasmii pomeshiki muboriza meburdand. Petroshevchiyon dar solhoi okhiri faoliyatashon mekhostand jamiyati makhfie tashkil kunand, ki programma va taktikai khudro doshta boshad. Kushish doshtand choykhonai pinhoni kushoyand 23. 4. 1849 Petrashevchiyon habs shudaid. 123 nafar ba javobgari kashida shuda. 21 nafar ba qatl mahkum gardid. Bad (22 dekabri 1849) hukmi qatlro bo ba­darga ivaz namudand. Boqimondaho ba rotahoi makhsus firistoda shudand.

Ad.: Leyk i n a-S v i r s k a ya V. F.,  Petrashevsi. M., 15)65; U s a k i n a T. I.. Petrashevsi i literaturno-oosheetveiioe Dvijenie 40-ikh godov XIX v , (Jiratov 1965.

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