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Pedagogikai khalqi

Pedagogikai khalqi, sohai il­mi pedagogika. Pedagogikai khalqi majmui donishhoi pedagogist, ki az tajribai ruzgor ba miyon omadaast. Istilohi Pedagogikai khalqiro ba adabiyoti pedagogi K. D. Ushinskiy dokhil kard va mohiyati tarbiyavii ejodiyoti lafzii khalki rusro niz u sharh dod. Ejodiyoti laf­zii khalq qismi demokratii madaniyati qadimai ommai vasei khalq buda, yak zumra faylasufon, psikhologho, pedagogho, guyandagon va roviyoni nomalum dorad. Avvalin tasavvuroti odamon doir ba zindagi, muhit va tajribai ruzgor dar ejodiyoti laf­zii khalq ifoda yofta, har khalq vobasta ba taraqqiyoti tarikhiyu mavqei geografi tarzi zindagi va rasmu oini khosi khudro dorad.

Guzashtagoni mo, tojikon, az qadimulayyom baroi tarbiyai insoni poksirshti usulhoi gunoguni tasirrasoniro ba kor burdaand va tajribai hayotii onho az avlod ba avlod, az nasl ba nasl shifohan naql yofta, ba sifati Pedagogikai khalq to ba zamoni mo rasidaast. Dar ejodiyoti lafzii khalqi tojik dar khususi talimu tarbiya bisyor fikrhoi jolibi diqqat bayon shudaast. Masalan, dar afsona, rivoyat, doston, zarbulmasal va gayra hurmati padaru modar, muhabbat va vafodori, haqgui va sadoqat, nafi mehnat va zarari bekori, notarsivu daleri, munosibati samimona ba duston, nafrat ba zulmu zolimon va rayra ifoda yoftaast.

Badi ba hayoti muqimi guzashtani odamon va ba vujud omadani davlat guyanda va mutribon paydo shudand, ki daleri va qahramonii peshvoyoni khudro vasf mekardand. Yake qadimtarin rivoyathoi khalqi do­stoni Siyovush ast, ki u homin osoishi mardum budaast. Khalq az margi u gamgin shuda, bisyor surud va riroyatho ofarida bud, ki barom dar ruhi qahramoniyu daleri tarbiya kardani odamon khidmatero ba jo ovardand. Surudi «Alla», ki dar sari gahvorai tifl khonda meshavad, chun yak unsuri tarbiyai tomaktabi, orzuyu omol va ideali padaru modarro aks menamoyad:

Alla, jonam, allayo,

Oromi jonam, allayo,

Kalon shavi, khandon shavi, e allayo,

Chakdon shavi, purdon shavi, e allayo.

Namoyandagoni Pedagogikai khalq khususiyati ruhiyai bachagonro khub medonistand. Surud, tarona, afsona va tezguyakhoe, ki maqsadi muayyane doshta, kharakter va khislati bachagonro ravshanu vozeh mesozand, ba in shahodat medihand. Pedagogikai khalq qismi dar tajriba hosil shudai donishhoi pedagogii ommai khalq buda, malaka va mahorati odamonro doir ba talim va tarbiya dar bar megirad. Sarchashmai asosii Pedagogikai khalqro ejodiyoti lafzii khalq, materialei etnografi, ananahoi khalq, bozi va bozichaho, idu marosimho tajribai tarbiyai oila va gayra tashkil medihad.

Pedagogikai khalq natijai mehnati ejodii kollektivonai naslhoi mukhtalif buda, vobasta ba talaboti khalq behtarin jihathoi demokrati va gumanistii tarbiyaro pesh guzoshtaast. Jihati asosii Pedagogikai khalq tarbiyai mehnat buda, maqsadi on donish, malaka va mahorati istehsoli hosil kunondan ast. Dar rohi in maqsad az chunin unsurhoi Pedagogikai khalq, monandi taqlid, ibrat, tartibi ruz, tarif, tanbeh va gayra istifoda mebarand.

Vositahoi khalqii tarbiyai esteti­ki va jismoni (surud, raqs, bozi va gayra) bisyor shavqovar buda, dar bayni khalq dar har mahal botobishi digar duchor meoyand. Az in ru Pedagogikai khalq az sarchashmahoi muhimmi nazari va amalii pedagogika buda, dar tarbiyai akhloqi kommunistki nasli navras va tartiboti pedagogi dar bayni padaru modaron mavqei kalon dorad. Pedagogikai khalq kam omukhta shudaast va dar on yak qator norasoiho mushohida meshavand. Agarchi asosan manfiati ommahoi khalqro himoya mekard, Pedagogii khalq chun shakli shuuri jamiyati bazan aqidahoi reaksioniro, ki ba sinfi hukmron khizmat merasond, aks namudaast: Binobar in hamon jihathoi Pedagogikai kharqro boyad omuzam va targib na­moem, ki ba tarbiyai zamoii mo muvofiq boshad.

Ad.: Volkov G. N., Chuvashskaya na­rodnaya pedagogika, Cheboksari, 1958; G a- shya m o v A. Sh., Azerbaydjanskaya na­rodnaya pedagogika (dis. doktory); Orifi M., Az tarikhi afkori pedagogii khalqi tojik, j. 1—2, D. 196(2—65.

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