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Pechanakho

Pechanakho, ittifoqi qabilahoe, ki az omezishi turkhoi kuchmanchi bo qabilahoi sarmatho, ugoru fin tashkil yofta bud. Asrhoi 8—9 dar zaminhoi bayni Volga va  Ural mezistand. Asri  9 vengerhoi kuchmanchiro torumor karda, hududi kalonero az poyonobi Volga to rezishgohi Dunay ishgol namudand. Mashguliyati asosiashon chorvodori bud. Asri 10 ba guruhhoi sharqi va garbi taqsim shuda, az 8 qabila (40 avlod) iborat budand. Ba qabilahoi kalon «khonhoi buzurg», ba avlodho «khonhoi khurd» sarvari mekardand, ki onhoro majlishoi qabilaho va avlodho intikhob menamudand.

Pechanakho hokimiyati merosi niz doshtand, Asironro ba gulomi mefurukhtand yo ba ivazi garavpuli ba vatanashon barmegardondand. Yak qismi asironro hamchun azoyoni barobarhuquq ba hayati avlodho qa­bul mekardand. Pechanakho ba sarzamini Rus borho hamla kardaand (916, 920, 968). Soli 1036 Yaroslav Mudriy dar nazdi Kiev ba Pechanakho zarbai sakht zada, ba tokhtutozhoi onho dar sarzamini Rus khotima dod. Asrhoi 11—12 bisyor Pechanakho bo maqsadi mudofiai sarhad ba janubi  Rusi Kiev kuchonda shudand.

Asrhoi 10—11 imperatoroni Vizan­tiya kushish namudand dar muborizai ziddi Rus va Bulgoriyai Dunay Pechanakhoro hamchun ittifoqchi istifoda barand. Pechanakho dar asrhoi 10—12 ba Vengriya omadand va ba onho dar qad- qadi sarhad va dokhili mamlakat joy dodand. Asrhoi 13—14 Pechanakho  jamchun khalqi yagona barham khurda, bo turkho, vengerho (majorho), rusho, mugulkho va digar khalqho daromekhtand.

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