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Pashsha

Pashsha, yak khel hasharoti parrandaest. Namudhoi gunoguni Pashsha, ki az jumlai dubolahoi muylabdaroz meboshand, dar biologiya zerqatori dubolahoi oddi (Nematoceria)-ro tashkil medihand. Tanu bolhoi aksari Pashshaho darozu borikand. Pashsha dar ob, khokhoi nam, boftai rastaniho va gayraho. zindagi mekunad. Shirai rastani, nektar, khuni odamu hayvonro memakad. 335 oilai Pashsha, ki ziyoda az 20 hazor namudro dar bar megirad, dar hama jo pahn shudaast. Pashsha ba guruhhoi zerin taqsim meshavad.

Pashshahoi darozpoy, ki kirminaashon dar ob, joyhoi sernam zist mekunad; bazeashon ba rastaniho zarar merasonand. Kirminai aksari Pashshahoi z a n- buuug dar zanburugho hayot  meguzaronand. Kirminai Pashshahoe, ki ga l l i t s a h o nom dorand, boftahoi rastaniro mekhurad; baze namudhoi in guruh darranda va bazei ditarashon parazit meboshand. Khomushakho Pashshahoi khunmak buda, barangezandahoi tablarza va leyshmaniozro pahn mekunand; Pashshahi varaja ba yak guruh mansub ast. Kirminai l a r zonpashsha yo khud parvonahoi obi dar ob zist mekunad va khuroki mohi meboshad. Kirminayu zochai «k i rm i kh a r a k» dar havzu labi juybor va zaminhoi sernam vujud dorand; faqat modinaashon khun memakand; ba odam va hayvonoti khonagiyu vahshi hamla mekunand, onho pahnkunandai yak qator kasalihoi hayvonot, ensefaliti yaponi va gayra meboshand. Dar kuhho va sohili daryoyu labi juybor Pashshahoe dida meshavand, ki ba oilai Vlepharoceridae (qarib 150 namud) va Deuphrophlebiidae (5 namud) mansuband. Kirminai onho uzvi makhsuse dorad, ki ba vositai on ba sangu giyohhoi labi juybor chaspida ba voya merasad.

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