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Partiviyat

Partiviyat 1) ba partiyai siyosi mansub budani odam; 12) raviyai goyavii jahonbini, falsafa, ilmhoi jamiyati, adabiyot va sanat, ki manfiati sinf va guruhhoi muayyani ijtimoiro ifoda karda, dar tamoyuli ijtimoii ejodiyoti ilmi va badei, mavqei shakhsii olimon, faylasufon, navisanda va sanatkoron zahur meyobad. Partiviyat dar manoi vaseii prinsipi raftori odamon, faoliya­ti tashkilot va muassisaho, yaroqi muborizai siyosiyu ideologi mebozad. Mafkhumi «Partiviyat» bo faolilti partiyai siesi zich aloqamand ast. Zero on manfiathoi sinf yo gurukhhoi ijtimoiro ravshan ifoda karda, vazifai rohbarii muborizai siyosii onhoro ba uhda megirad.

Az in ru, az tarafi odamon amiq dark shudani manfiathoi sinfi va rohi siyo­sii partiyaro tarafdori kardani onho Partiviyatro ifoda mekunad. «Aholii muayyan yo ki sinfi muayyan az jihati siyosi har qadar ziyodtar muttaraqqi, marifatnok, boshuur boshad, partiyaviyati vay, az rui qoidai umumi, khamon qadar balandtar ast» (Lenin Vladimir Ilich, Asarhoi, jildi 24, sahifai 548).. Afkori jamiyati dar davomi tamomi tarikhi jamiyatii antagonisti khususiyati partiyavi dosht. Dar jamiyati gulomdori va feodali guruhhoi siyosi, jarayonhoi mukhtalifi falsafi va afkori jamiyatiyu siyosi manfiathoi tabaqahoi guvoguni sinfhoi hukmronro ifoda mekardand. Dar muborizai ideyavi manfiathoi sinfhoi mazlum niz ifoda meshavand.

Paydoish va inkishofi sotsializmi khayoli namunai in ast. Vobasta ba on ki guruhhoi muayyani siyosi manfiati kadom sinfro ifo­da mekunand, Partiviyat ahamiyati progressivi yo irtijoi doshta metavonad. Bo paydoishi burjuaziya va proleta­riat Partiviyat dar muborizai sinfho, hayoti goyaviyu siyosii jamiyat ahamiyati khos paydo mekunad. Partiyai kommunisti prinsipi Partiviyatro sobitqadamona muhofizat menamoyad. Prinsipi Partiviyati kommunisti tajassumi yagonagii tahlili ilmii voqeiyat va himoyai sobitqadamonai manfiathoi prole­tariat meboshad, ki in tanho ba so­tsializm va kommunizm khos ast. Ba­roi proletariat, ki ba donistani rohhoi konkretii sokhtmoni jamiyati nav manfiatdor ast, sharhi ilmi va obektivii olam, qonunho va rohhoi guzarish az kapitalizm ba sotsi­alizm lozim ast.

Tanho marksizm- leninizm in vazifaro ijro meku­nad. Az in ru, hamai kushishhoi dushmanoni sotsializm dar bobati jihati ilmi va partiyavii nazariyai marksizm-leninizmro bo ham muqobil guzoshtan asose nadorand. Nazariyai marksistiyu lenini vazifa va maqsadhoi sinfi korgar, siyosati partiyai kommunistiro muhofizat va asosnok namuda, sokhti istismori, siyosat va ideologiyai onro beamon tanqid mekunad. Aqidai kommuniston az ibtido chunin ast: «Bo par­tiya inkishof nameshavad, be judoshavi — progress» («Marks Karl, nigared Marks Karl i Engels Fridrikh Sochinenie, 2 izdanie., tom 1, sahifai 113). Bar khilofi in burju­aziya, ki manfiathoyash ba manfiati aksariyati aholi mukholif act, niyathoi aslii khudro pinhon namuda, baroi maqsadhoi iqtisodiyu siyosii khudro chun maqsadi khamai  azoyoni chamiyat nishon dodan mekushad.

In niyat ideologho va siyosatchiyoni burjuaziro majbur mekunad, ki ba muqobili prinsipi Partiviyat baroyand. Binobar in Partiviyat roli proletari, bepartiya- viyat boshad, goyai burjuazist. Dar zamonn hozira kushishi ideologhoi burjuazi baroi targibi ideyai bepartiyaviyat boz ham meafzoyad, alalkhusus dar zamone, ki tanosubi quvvaho dar arsai baynalkhalqi baroi foidai sotsializm tagyir yofta, etibori sistemai jahonii sotsializm peshi nazari khalqhoi dunyo meafzo­yad va afzaliyati sokhti sotsialisti inobat ba kapitalizm dar amal tasdiq gardidaast. Dar sharoiti imruza, vaqte ki muborizai bayni kapi­talizm va sotsializm tezu tund megardad, munosibati sinfi va partiyavi ba tahlilu bahodihii hodisahoi ijtimoi dar arsai jahoni ahamiyati khos paydo mekunad. Bnnobar in Partiyai Kommunisti dar masalahoi tarbiya az mavqei sinfi baromad kardan, muntazam baland bardoshtani hushyorii revolyutsionii ommai khalq, muborizai sobitqadamona ba muqobili kanorajui az siyosatro vazifakhoi muhimi ideologii khud medonad.

Prinsipi Partiviyat dar sohai ilmhoi jamiyati — falsafa, adabiyot va sanat zuhuri khos dorad. Umumiyati Partiviyati ilmhoi jamiyati az on iborat ast, ki mavzui tahqiqi onho hodisahoi ijtimoist va onhoro berun az manfiathoi sinfu gurukhhoi ijtimoi sharkh dodan mumkin nest.

Partiviyat dar falsafa va ilmhoi digari jamiyati bo marifati olam, inkishofi ideyahoi progressisi vobasta ast, ki odatan tajassumkunandai onho namoyandagoni sinfhoi peshqadam budand. Partiviyati aqidahoi falsafi az rui munosibati mukhtalif ba sharhi olam (tanosubi materiya va ruh, hasti va shuur), mavqei odam dar olam, munosibati u bo sarvathoi manavi, az qabili etikiyu estetiki va gayra muayyan karda meshavand.

Falsafai marksizm-leninizm, ki chun sistemai tomi nazari ba vujud omadaast, jahonbinii sinfi korgarro ifoda mekunad, asoskhoi metodologii faoliyati digargunsozii revolyutsioni va tadqiqoti ilmiro faroham meorad. Falsafai marksisti partiyavist, yane mukhofizati manfiathoi proletariatro unsuri zarurii maqsadi khud medonad. «Falsafai navtarin ham, chunon ki du hazor sol pesh az in bud, partiyavi ast» (Lenin Vladimir Ilich, Polnoe cobranie., sochineniy, 5 izdanie, tom 18, stranisa 380).

Partiyaviyat dar adabiyot va sanat dar mazmuni goyavii asari navisanda, sanatkor va digar ziyoiyoni ejodi, tamoyuli ijtimoi, tarikhi va sinfii asari badei, jarayoni ideologi dar ejodi badei, mavqei navisanda dar muborizahoi ijtimoi zohir meshavad. Yagon san­atkor az tasiri quvvakhoi ijtimoii zamon berun buda nametavonad. U bo hazoron rishta bo kushish va sarvat­hoi manavii sinfhoi muayyan sakht payvand buda, khokhu nokhoh maylu khohish va manfiati onkhoro ifoda menamoyad. Harchand dar hama zamonho tamoyuli goyavii adabiyot va sanat barqaror bud, ammo prinsipi Partiviyati ejodiyoti badeiro avvalin bor Vladimir Ilich Lenin aniq muayyan kard. Vladimir Ilich Lenin dar maqolai «Tashkiloti partiyavi va adabiyoti partiyavi» (1905) durugi mahz budani ozodii mutlaqi ejodiyotro nishon doda, prinsipi Partiviyati adabiyot va sanatro ba miyon ovard.

Vladimir Ilich Lenin takid mekard, ki «…proletariati sotsialisti boyad prinsipi adabiyoti partiyavir o pesh guzorad, in prinsipro inkishof dihad va onro ba shakli, to mum­kin ast, purra va komiltar dar hayot tatbiq namoyad» (Lenin Vladimir Ilich, Asarhoi, jildi 10, sahifai 32). Vladimir Ilich Lenin bar ziddi adabiyoti guyo «ozod»-i burjuazi adabiyoti haqiqatan ozodi proletariro ba miyon guzoshta bud. Adabiyoti kha­kiqatan ozod adabiyoti realizmi so­tsialistiest, ki ba prinsipi Partiviyat asos yofta, na ba «dakh hazor bolo- nishinon», «balki ba millionho va dahho million mehnatkashon, ki gu­li mamlakat, quvvai on va oyandai on meboshand, khizmat mekunad».

Partiviyat dar adabiyot va sanat mavqei ijti­moi va estetikii sanatkor, ishtiroki u dar chunbishhoi ijtimoi va tarikhist. Manoi Partiviyat in ast, ki sanatkor ba ruydodhoi olami voqei oshkoro va ruirost az mavqei aqidaho va manfiathoi gurukhi muayyani jamiyat bakho medihad. Bnnobar on Partiviyat az sanatkor pesh az hama mavqei ustuvori ijtimoi, jakhonbinii so­lim va aniq donistani qonunhoi inkishofi chamiyatro talab meku­nad. Partiviyat prinsipi ejodii navisanda, metod, ruh, goya va khususiyatkhoi botinii ejodiyoti ust. Partiviyat na tanho dar mavqei goyavii navisanda, balki dar khususiyathoi estetikii asari badei va shaklu mazmuni on ham ifoda meyobad.

Partiviyat inkishofi adabiyot va sanatro dar yak doirai muayyan makhdud nakarda, balki ba ozodii ejodiyot, tashabbusu justujuho, uslubu raviyahoi gunoguni ejodi imkoniyati kalon faroham meovarad. Partiviyat sanatkoronro vodor mesozad, ki shaklkhoi tozai tadqiqi badeiro juyo shavand, muhimtarin masalahoi hayoti khalqro dar adabiyot inikos kunand, baroi idealhoi olii kommuni­sti muboriza barand. Tajribai in- kishofi adabiyoti sermillati soveti daleli in ast. Partiviyat ba navisanda im- kon medihad,  ki ba mohiyati pro­sesshoi ijtimoi amiq sarfahm ravad, kharakterho va munosibathoi navi shakhs va jamiyat va masalahoi sokhtmoni jamiyati kommunistiro haqqosni tayyor namoyad. Partiyai Kommunisti hamesha az sanatkoron talab ‘mekunad, ki ba prinsipi Partiviyat sodiq boshand, onro harchi faoltar dar adabiyot va sanat tatbiq namoyand.

Adabiyot: Lenin Vladimir Ilich, Tashkiloti partiyavi va adabiyoti partiyavi, Asarhoi, jildi 10, Stalinobod, 1950; Ta barov S.. Naza­riyai leninii partivyaiyati adabiyot va sanat, Dushanbe, 1963; Sayfulloev A., Aqidahoi adabii Lenin va adabiyoti to­jik, Dushanbe, 1973; Lenin i iskusstvo, Moskva. 1969; Dubrovin A. G., O partiynos­ti khudojestvennogo tvorchestva, Moskva, 1977; Sherbina V. R., Lenin i khudojest­vennaya literatura, Moskva, 1979.

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