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Payvasthoi organikii metallho

Payvasthoi organikii metallho, payvastnoi khimiyavie, ki dar onho atomi yagon metall bo ato­mi karbon bevosita payvast shudaast. Payvasthoi organikii metallho az rui bandi metall karbon (M — S) ba du guruh chudo me­shavand: 1) payvasthoi organikii elementhoi basit (oddi) yo khud gayri mutavassit va mutavassit (bo karbon bandi oddi — o band hosil mekunand); 2) Payvasthoi organikii elementhoi mutavassit, ki dar on­ho bandi M—S dar natijai ba orbitalhoi nomukammali d (yo 1)-i metallho guzashtani ya-elektronhoi ligandho (SO, karbogidridhoi aro­mati, etileni, asetileni, siklopentadienili va gayra) ba vuchud meoyand. Chunin payvastkho ya-kompleks nomida meshavand.

Alhol az Payvasthoi organikii metallho in guruhi yakum hosilahoi Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Gd, Hg, Al, Ga, Te, Go, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, As va mutavassit Ti, V, Mn, Cu, Ag, Au, Pt purra omukhta shudaand. Khosiyathoi in payvastkho az rui sirishti bandi M—S, ki on dar navbati khud asosan az tabiati metall (M) va inchunin az sirisht va adadi radikalhoi organikie, ki bo atomi metall aloqamandand, vobasta ast. Masalan, dar Payvasthoi organikii metallhoi ishqori, ishqorzamini, Zn, Cd, Ai ban­di M—S sakht polyarizasiya shudaast, dar zimni in zaryadi musbat qisman dar M va zaryadi manfi qisman dar S joy giriftaast. Az in jihat ast, ki in guna payvastho khele faol buda, az tasiri ob va oksigen vay­ron meshavand. Payvasthoi organikii metallhoi gurukhi yakumro bo usulhoi zerin hosil mekunand:

4) Reaksiyai galogenalkil yo galo- genarilho bo M: RHal + 2M -► RM + +iMHal, dar in 40 M — Li, Be, Mg, Al, Ca, Hg va P., R — radikali alkil yo aril, Hal — galogen.

2) Reaksiyai bayni galogenidi me­tall va galogenalkilho dar ishtiroki natriy: Md3+3RCl+3Na-^NaCl+ -fiMRs va gayra.

Aksariyati Payvasthoi organikii metallhoi gurukhi yakum (gayr az polimer(No) dar halkunandahoi organiki hal meshavand. Pay­vasthoi Hg;, So, Pb zahrnokand.

Payvasthoi organikii metallho ba reaksiyahoi oksidshavi, komplekshosilkuni, khud az khud ok­sidu barqarorshavi (disproporsioni), dezalkiloni dokhil shuda, ba moddahoi organiki, S03 va gayra tasir merasonand.

Payvasthoi arili va allili ba­roi yak qator metallhoi mutavassit, az qabili Ti, V, Sg, Mn, Fe, So, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ta, Pt, Au malumand. Onho asosan bo rohhoi zerin hosil meshavand:

 

1) Sintez bo istifodai reaktivi Grinyar (RiMgHal, R = SN3| S2N3 va Hal — galogen). 2) Reaksiyai komplekhoi anionii metallho bo hosilahoi galogenii moddahoi orga­niki va gayra.

Dar Payvasthoi organikii metallhoi guruhi duyum atomi metall bo hamai atomhom karboni sistemai ya-elektroni tasiri mutaqobila dorad. Ferrosen, dibenzolkhrom, siklobutadienohantrikarbonil namunahoi in guruhi Payvasthoi organikii metallho  meboshaid. Nazariyai klassikii valent baroi tavsifi khimiyavii navi mazkuri payvastho ba kor nameoyad (nigared Valent). Omuzishi mukammali Payvasthoi organikii metallhoi guruhi duyum — l-kompleksho soli 1951 bo kashfi fer­rosen [(ya -‘CeHehFe] ya-disigklopentadienii ohan cap shuda, minbad hamchun sohai alohida taraqqi yoft. Rohhoi gunoguni hosil namudani l – kompleksho kashf shudaand. Tadqiqoti ya-kompleksho dar halli bisyor masalahoi khimiyai organikii nazariyavi, ba monandi inkishofi mafhumi aromati, bo metallhoi .mutavassit payvast shudani moddahoi az jihati termodinamiki noustuvor (siklobutadien, siklooktatrien va gayra), masalan tautomeriyai valenti va umuman bandi khimiyavi roli asosiro bozid.

Usulhoi asosii hosil kardani ya -komplekskho:

  1. Reaksiyam bayni CsHsNa va galogenidi metallhoi mutavassit.
  2. Reaksiyam bayni karbonili metallho bo olefin va digar ya-ligandho. Aksari ya-payvasthoi metallhoi mutavassit niz az tasiri obu oksigeni havo vayron meshavand. Binobar in bo onho dar muhiti beoksigen — gazhoi inerti yo nit­rogei kor boyad kard. Payvasthoi organikii metallho dar sintezi organiki istifoda meshavand; onho dar aksar prosesshoi sanoati khimiya behtarin kataliza­tor ba hisob meravand. Bisyor Payvasthoi organikii metallho hamchun doruvor, moddahoi anti­septiki va bakterisidi, inchunin ba sifati antidetonatori suzishvorii motori va stabilizatori poli­merho istifoda meshavand. Bo yorii Payvasthoi organikii metallho baroi sanoati nimnoqilqo metallhoi kholis istehsol mekunand, parda va ruypushhoi metalli megi- rand.

Oid ba sintez, omuzishi khosiyathoi khimiyaviyu fiziki va tatbiqi Payvasthoi organikii metallho  dar Universiteti Davlatii Tojikiston va Instituti khimiyai Akademiyai Fanghoi Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii Tojikiston tadqiqot mebarand.

Adabiyot: Metodi elementoorganicheskoy khi­mii, Moskva, 1963—65; Khimiya metalloorga­nicheskikh ’ soedineniy, Moskva, 1964; Not­tov F., Uilkinsov Dj., Sovre­mennaya neorganicheskaya khimiya, tom 1—3, Moskva, 1969; Grin’ M., Metalloorganiche­skie soedineniya perekhodnikh elementov, Moskva, 1972.

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