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Payvasthoi kompleksi

Payvasthoi kompleksi, payvasthoi koordinasion i, yak sinfi makhsusi payvasthoi khimiyaviero guyand, ki dar natijai ba yagon ion (yo atom) payvast shudani molekulahoi neytrali yo ionhoi digar hosil meshavand. Payvasthoi kompleksi sokhti khose dorand. Masalan, payvasti az reak­siyai- Pt£l< + 2KS1 KalPtCle] hosilshuda sokhti zerin dorad:

Yadroi Payvasthoi kompleksi yo khud kompleks az atomi markazi — komplekshosilkunanda (dar in jo ioni Pt4+) iborat ast. Bo atomi markazi molekula yo ion­hoe, ki onhoro ligand (ionhoi khlor) meguyand, koordinasiya  (robitanok) mepayvand (nigared Bandi khimiyavi), Muvofiqi nazariyai bandi kovalenti kompleksi K2[PtCle] boyad PtCl4

  • 2KG1 navishta meshud. Ammo tadqiqi rentgenii tarkib va omuzishi kho- siyathoi khimiyaviyu sokhti mazkuri kompleks, yane K2[PtGl6]-po tasdiq namudand. Dar chunin kompleks ligandho (S1 ), ki ba atomi markazi (Pt4 + ) nazdikand, nisbat ba ionhoi beruni |K+| ustuvortarand. Komp­leksnoe niz hastand, ki faqat az atomi markaziyu ligandho ibora­tand. Macalan, karbonili metallho Ge (SO)b, Ni(lGO)4, No(GO)e. Miqdori ionu molekulahoi bo atomi markazi bevosita payvastshudaro adadi k oordinasioni (adadi koordinasioni) menomand. Masalan, dar K2[CuCl4] a. k.-n mis — 4t dar (Sg(<N20)v)S1z a. «.-i khrom — 6, dar [Ca^NHaJeJClj a. k.-i kalsiy — 8 va g. Hozir a. k.-p aa 1 to 12 malum ast, vale dar amal a. k.-i 4 beshtar mamuland. Ba sifati atomi komplekshosilkunanda asosan elementhoi mutavassit (Ti, V, Crf Mn, Fe, Go, Ni, Cu, Pt, Au, Hg va gayra) va gayrimetallho (V, R, Si), ba sifati ligand boshad, anioni kislotahoi gayriorganikiyu organiki, payvasthoi gete- rosikli va digar molekulahoyu radikalhoi gunogun istifoda meshavand. Holo Payvasthoi kompleksii bisyoryadroii element­hoi mutavassit, ki baroi khimiyai nazariyavi va amali ahamiyati makhsus dorand, hamajihata omukhta me­shavand.

Sokhti Payvasthoi kompleksiro bori avval A. Ver­ner tadqiq kardaast. Korhoi uro olimoni namoyoni soveti L. A. Chuga­ev, I. I. Chernyaev va digar- davom dodaand. P.ayvasthoi  kompleksiro baroi chudo karda giriftan va toza kardani metallhoi guruhi platini, tillo, nuqra, nikel, kobalt, mis, elementhoi nodirzamin, metallhoi ishqori, inchunin dar digar prosesshoi tekhnologi, khimiyai ‘tahlili va gayra istifoda mebarand. Bisyor Payvasthoi kompleksi dar prosesshoe, ki dar organizmi zinda surat megirand (nafaskashi, fotosintez, katalizi fermentativi, mubodilai moddaho va gayra) ishtirok mekunand.

Adabiyot Kotton F., Uilkinson Dj., Sovremennaya neorganicheskaya khi­miya, tarjumai az anglisi, tom 1—3, Moskva, 1969.

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