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Payrav Otajon Sulaymoni

Payrav (takhallus; nom va familiyaash Otajon Sulaymoni; 15. 4. 1899, Bukhoro — 9. 6. 1933. Samarqand), shoiri sovetii tojik. Az oilai savdogari kalon. To soli 1911 dar .maktabi ibtidoii Bukho­ro, solhoi 1911—14 dar madrasai for­sii Marv khonda, az soli 1914 to 1916 dar nazdi muallimoni khususi za­boni rusi omukhta, az ibtidoi 1916 to 1917 dar Omuzishgohi Kogop talim giriftaast. Payrav Revolyutsiyai Khalqii Bukhororo samimona peshvoz girift. Dar davrai muborizahoi tezutundi sinfi va tashkili Respublikai Khalqii  Sotsialistii Bukhoro okhiri soli 1921 kotibi duyumi saforatkhonai Respublikai Khalqii  Sotsialistii Bukhoro dar Afgonistoya tain shud. Hangomi az Kobul bargashtani Payrav (1922) dar Respublikai Khalqii  Sotsialistii Bukhoro, az yak taraf, harakati nepmani va muborizai ziddi bosmachiyop avj girifta bud, az tarafi digar, taqsimoti hududi milli va zamiiu ob ogoz meyoft.

Solhoi 1922—24 u dar havliyu dukonhoi padarash va avvali soli 1924 dar Mashhad umr ba cap mebarad. Voqeahoi jamiyati, siyosi va ijtimoii solhoi minbada, tashkili respublikahon sohibikhtiyori millii Osiyoi Miyona, az jumla Respublikai Avtonomii Sovetii Sotsialistii Tojikiston (1924) va makhsusan qarori Komiteti Markazii RKP(b) «Dar borai siyosati partiya dar sohai adabiyoti badei» (1925) ba faoliyati ejodii Payrav tabadduloti jiddi darovardand. U robitaashro bo nashriyot va gazetavu jurnalhoi tojikii  Dushanbe, Samarkand, Toshkent mustahkam menamoyad, ba kori ejodi jidditar kamar mebandad. Az oktyabri 1930 to may 1931 Payrav dar idorai Nashriyoti davlatii Tojikiston va to soli 1933 dar shubai samar- qandii on kor kard. Sherhoi nakhustini Payrav «Muvashshah» (1916), «Ba- rodari joni» (1916), «Ishtiyoq» (1918), «Masnavi» (1918), «Ba Sadullojon» (taqriban soli 1920) va gayra guvohi medihand, ki u bo tasiri nazmi klassiki va makhsusan lirikai on ba mashqi sher khele barvaqt shugl varzidaast.

In sherho ba talabotu khususiyathoi umdatarini janrhoi mamuli nazmi klassiki (miqdori qofilho, tarzi qofiyayu radifsozi, husni takhallus va gayra), zabonu uslub va sanatu vositahoi tasviri badeii on muvofiqat meku- nand. Dar sheri «Ba munosibati Inqilobi Bukhoro» (1920) shoir avvalin bor ba mavzui revolyutsiya ru ovardaast, ki dar on shodii khalq va makhsusan javonon tantanavor sado medihad. Dar in sher shakli mustazod, ohang, nido, zada, sanathoi sheri va makhsusan saj baroi ravshanu barjasta gardidani mazmu- nu goya madad rasondaand. Ammo avvali solhoi 20 dar ejodiyoti Payrav miq- dori in guna sherho kam buda, shoir beshtar lirikai ishqii pursuzu gudoz meofarid: «Bok nest» (1921), «To kay?» (1921) va makhsusan «Shabi hijron bo khayoli jonon» (‘4924), «Chi shud, ki?…»    (1924), «Firoqnoma» (1924) va gayra.

In sherho asosan dar payraviyu raviyai nazmi saromadoni adabiyoti Klassikii fors-tojik navishta shudaand. Pas az nashri qarori mazkuri Komiteti Markazii RKP (b) va bo ta­siri on ba tavri jiddi tagyir yoftani munosibat ba adiboni «kamsafar» dar mavzu va goyai ashori Payrav niz digarguni ba vujud omad. Shoir dar mavzui ozodii zanon, sherhoi «Shukufai irfon yo khud ozodik zanoni III arq» (1926), «Ba sharafi qiyomi zanoni Sharq» (1927), «Asira yo khud isyop» (1927), «Hashtumi mart va sanoei nafisa» (1931) va hikoyai «Gulandom»-ro (1928) ofarid.

In asarho muvofiqi talabi zamon na­vishta shuda, haqiqati badeii voqeiyati tarikhiro dar bar kardaand va aksari onho bo konkretiyati mavzu, mazmunu mundarijai toza va gayra jolibi diqqat meboshand, Dar in solho mavzui baynalkhalqi dar ejodiyoti  mavqe girift. U dar sherhoi «Shurishi Chin yo khud voqe­ai Nankin» (1927), «Du hujum»(1927), «Ba jamiyati Khiloli Ahmar» (1927), «Yakumi may va MOPR»(1928).  «Hinduston» (1928), «Az dasti tu bud» (1929), «Ba falokatzada­goni zilzilai Eron» (1928), «Yak Kurbonii kuchaya burjuazii Avrupo (1930), «Ba militaristonya Yaponiya» (1932) va gayra ba bisyor masalahoi muhimmi baynalkhalqi, makhsusan ha­rakati millyozodikhohi dar Khitoy, Hinduston, Afgoniston va digar mamlakathoi Osiyo, muboriza bar ziddi jangjuyoni impernalisti va gayra dast zada, raviyai ashori Sadriddin Ayni, A. Lohutiro az adabiyoti tojik va Maksim Gorkiy, V. Mayakovskiyro az adabiyoti rus dar in mavzu davom va inkishof dod.

Shoir, makhsusan, dar chunin sherho az shaklhoi sheri, vaznu qofiya, sanathoi badei, zada, nidoyu khitoba va gayra. hunarmandona istifoda burda, navovarihoi shoyoni diqqat karda ast. Dar okhiri solhoi 20 tavajjuhi Payrav ba mavzu va masalahoi hayoti sotsialisti va alalkhusus, sokhtmonhoi azimi on dar Tojikiston ziyodtar gardid. Dar sherhoi «Sarvat va mehnat» (1930), «Ba zarbdor!» (1930), «Bar ziddi opportu­nistoni «chap» va rost, ba yorii zarbdoron» (1930), «Marshi pioneron»

  • «Korvon» (1931), «Navidi Vakhshstroy» (1933) va gayra ba mavzuhoi muhimmi ruz dast zada, dar tasviri realistii hayot az ranghoi ro­mantiki mohirona istifoda burdaast. Payrav dar aksari in qabil sherho muvofiqi talaboti mavzu va goyai asar dar poetikai sheri kombinasiyahoi tozaro farovon istifoda kardaast. Namunai barjastai justuju, navovari va ikhtirokorip Payrav sheri «Navidi Vakhshstroy» meboshad. Payrav shoiri lirik ast. U dar lirikai ishqi va makhsusan dar lirikai ijtimoi va grajdani komyobiho dorad. Payrav dar janrhoi epikii nazm niz quvvaozmoi karda,’ dostonhom «Takhti khunin» (1931), «Jumhuriyati Tojikiston va matbuoti ranjbarii tojik» (1931) va dostoni notamomi «Manorai marg»-ro ofarid. Payrav dar ofarinishi sherhoi hajvi ham istedodi kalon dosht. Dar «Taronai idi buzurgi Oktyabr» (1932), «Panjsolai avval dar chahor sol ijro shud!» (1933!) boyonu mushtzuron, kapitaliston, opportuniston va dushmanonu khoinon hadafi hajvu istekhzoch shoir gardidaand. Udar gushai «Shashpar»-i jurnali «Bigiz» bo laqabi mustaori «Shashpardor» ashori hajvi va yakchand sherhoi taqlidii hajvi — naqizaho ba tab rasopdaast. Dar naqizahoi u kambudii ejodii yak qator shoironu munaqqidon — N. Bektosh, G. Alizoda, J. Suhayli, T. Zehni va baze nohamvorihoi sheri khudash tanqidu mazammat shudaand.

Payrav mutarjimi mohir ham bud. Tarjumai sherhoi ba Vladimir Ilich Lenin bakhshidai A. Jarov, sherhoi shoiri zangii Shtathoi Muttahidai Amerika Lengstop Hyuz, mazhakai Nikolay Vasilevich Gogol «Revizor», dramai D. Furmanov va S. Polivanov «Balvo», romani A. Serafimovich «Seli ohanin», baze maqolahoi ilmi-ommavi, pedagogi va gayra az hunari tarjumoni Payrav guvohi medihand.

Osnovanie: Majmui sherho, Stalinobod, 1934; Majmui osor, Stalinobod, 1959; Izbrannoe, Stalinabad, 1957; Asarhoi muntakhab, Dushanbe, 1962; Devon, Dushanbe, 1971.

Adabiyot: Tabarov S., Materialho oid ba omukhtani adabiyoti sovetii tojik, Stalinobod, 1948; h a m o n muallif, Payrav Sulaymoni, Dushanbe. 1962; Ocherk istorii tad­jikskoy sovetskoy literaturi, Moskva, 1961.

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MUHAMMADShAFYOI ShEROZI

MUHAMMADShAFYOI ShEROZI  (1783, Sheroz —1846, hamon jo), khushnavis va shoiri fors. Padarash Muhammadismoil nom dosht. …