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Paydoishi oila, molikiyati khususi va davlat

«Paydoishi oila, molikiyati khususi va davlat» asari Fridrikh Engels buda, bori avval ba nemisi soli 1884 ba tab rasidaast. Dar in acap jamiyati insoni az khudi zinahoi avvali inkishofash cap karda az mavqei dialektikiyu materialisti takhlil shuda, prosessi zavoli sokhti – avlodi va dar zaminai molikiyati khususm paydo shudanb munosibathoi cinfi hamajihata tadqiq gardidaast. Dar asar taqavvuli shakli oila, paydoish va mohiyati davlat tasvir shuda, zarurati bo mururi zamon murda raftani davlat (dar natijai guzashtan ba jamiyati besinfii kommunisti) asosnok shudaast.

Ba qavli Vladimir Ilich Lenin, «in asar yake az asarhoi asooii sotsializmi zamoni hozira meboshad» (Asarhoi, jildi 29, sahifai 506). Kitob az 9 bob ibo- rat ast. Dar bobhoi 1 va 2 sharoiti zindagii odamon az davrai qadimtarin to paydoishi sokhti avlodi tahlil shuda, inkishofi munosibathoi oila va nikoh dar chamiyati sinfi tadqiq va oilai burjuazi tanqid karda meshavad. Fridrikh Engels dar in asar nuktakhoi metodologii talimoti marksistiro dar borai jamiyati ibtidoi hamchun zinai makhsusi tarikhi insoniyat inkishof doda, qayd mekunad, ki mehnat sharti avvalini hayoti insoni va haddest, ki jamiyati insoniro az hayvonot chudo mekunad.

Fridrikh Engels dar bobhoi 3 va 9 khususiyathoya tartibii avlodii jamiyatiro khamchun yachey­kai jamiyati tosinfi takhdil namuda, «kommunizmi» ibtidoii avlo- diro tafsir kardaast. Fridrikh Engels tanazzuli sokhti avlodiro nishon doda, sababhoi iqtisodiero tahqiq namud, ki tartiboti avlodii jamiyatro dar zinai olii inkishofash barham zad. U nishon dod, ki bo in­kishofi quvvahoi istehsol kunanda, taqsimoti mehnat va afzoishi mahsulnokii on, imkoniyati bahra bur- dan az mahsuli mehnati digaroi, istismori odam az tarafi odam va taqsimi jamiyat ba sinfhoi zid ba miyon omad.

Dar natijai in davlat hamchun aslihai sinfi istismorgaron baroi mute nigoh doshtani sinfi mazlum paydo shud. Fridrikh Engels shaklhoi gunoguni konkretii davlatro tahlil namuda, tabiati sinfii onhoro oshkor sokhta, tamoyuli tahavvuli minbadai davlati burjuaziro takhqiq kard. U qayd kard, ki ka­pitalizm hej goh yagon khel ozodihoi demokrati va ozodii haqiqii mehnatkashonro tamin namekunad. En­gels dar ayni hol manfiathoi pro­letariatro baroi nigoh doshtan va ziyod namudani ozodihoi demokrati, ki dar muboriza bahri digargunsozii revolyutsionii jamiyat sharoi­ti musoid faroham meorand, qayd kardaast.

Fridrikh Engels nishon dod, ki dar sha­roiti gunoguni tabii va konkretiyu tarikhi prosessi tanazzuli jamoai ibtidoi yak khel nabuda, mazmuni asosii on — guzashtan az chamiyati besinf ba chamiyati sinfi baroi hama mamlakatho va khalqho yakson ast. In taqlil talimoti dialektikiyu materialistiro dar borai yagonaash tarikhi, inkishofi progres­sivi va qonuniyati ivazshavii shaklhoi hayoti jamiyati tasdiq menamoyad.

In asari Fridrikh Engels dar tadqiqi talimoti marksisti oid ba daalat zinai muhim ba shumor meravad (nigared. Karl Marks «Hajdahumi bryume­ri Lui Bonapart», “Jangi grajda­ni dar Fransiya», «Tanqidi programmai Gotam, Fridrikh Engels «Anti- Dyuring»), ki onro Vladimir Ilich Lenin vobasta ba sharoiti navi tarikhi dar asarash «Davlat va revolyutsiya» in­kishof dod. Kitobi Engels bar ziddi talimoti burjuazi oid ba dav­lat nigaronida shudaast.

Adabiyot: Marks Karl. Konspekt knigi Lyu­isa G. Morgana «Drevnee obshestvo», v knigi: Arkhiv Marksa i Engelsa, tom IX (Moskva— Leningrad], 1941; Lenin Vladimir Ilich, dar borai dav­lat, Asarhoi, jildi 29; Fridrikh Engels o gosu­darstve i prave, [Moskva, 1970]; Problemi etnografii i antropologii v svete na­uchnogo naslediya Fridrikha Engelsa, Moskva, 1972.

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