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Pakhtakori

Pakhtakori, yake az sohahoi aso­sii rastaniparvari, ki ba parvarishi pakhta mashgul ast. Dar SSSR pakhtaro dar Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialisti Tojikiston, Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialisti  Uzbekiston, Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialisti  Turkmaniston, Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialisti  Ozarboyjon, Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialisti Qazoqiston, Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialisti  Qirgiziston parvarish mekunand.

Pakhtakori hanuz pesh az milod dar Hinduston, Khitoy, Eron, Peru, Meksika, Misr chun sohai dehqoni vujud dosht. Muvofiqi hafriyoti arkheologi asrhoi 1—4metr pakhta mekoshtand. Tojikon az zamonhoi khele qadim ba Pakhtakori shugl doshtand. Asrhoi 7—10 dar qismi shimoli Istaravshan (dehai Shavkat) pakhta meparvaridaand. Hangomi hafriyoti qalai Sugd (asri 8) dar Mug chigit, yak qabza pakhta va chizhoi gunoguni az pakhta boftashuda yoft shudaand. Az rui makhazhoi tarikhi hanuz az nimai duyumi asri 13 dar qatori digar mahsuloti khojagii qishloq az Osiyoi Miyona pakhta niz mekashondaand. Pakhtaro dar Khutalon (muvofiqi malumoti Hamdullohi Qazvini), Murgob, Balkh, Kesh (Shahrisabz) va khususan ba miqdorp ziyod dar Samarqand (muvofiqi malumoti Klaviho) niz parvarish mekardand. Barobari rivoj yoftani aloqahoi iqtisodii bayni Rossiyayu Tojikiston va dar natijai ziyod shudani talabotu baland gardidani narkhi pakhta dar bozorhoi Rossiyai Markazi maydoni kishti pakhta dar Tojikistoni Shimoli va Bukhoroi Sharyi afzud. Masalan, agar soli 1889 dar uezdi Khujand zamini umumii pakhta 966 tanob boshad, soli 1914 ba 10700 tanob rasid. Az soli 1890 to 1917 zamini kishti pakhtai Bukhoroi Sharqi tadrijan 15 ma­rotiba (az 520 to 7600 gektar) ziyod shud. Soli 1913 dar hududi hozirai Tojikis­ton 26,7 daz. gektar, az jumla, dar okru­gi Khujand 13,2 hazor gektar, vodihoi Hisoru Vakhsh 12 hazor gektar, dar nohiyai Kulob hamagi 1500 gektar pakhta mekoshtand. Khudi hamon sol 32,3 hazor tonna pakhta (hosilnokiash ba hisobi miyo­na 12,1 sentner/gektar) gundoshtand.

Dar Rossiyai torevolyutsioni pakh­tai istehsolshavanda talaboti mam- lakatro qone namegardond va 60%- i pakhtai dar sanoat istifodashavanda az mamlakathoi khoriji ovarda meshud.

Galabai Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr dar taraqqii Pakhtakori gardishi muhime ba amal ovard. Aa ruzhoi avvali revolyutsiya Partiyai Kommunisti va Hukumati Soveti ba taraqqii Pakhtakori diqqati jiddi dodand. Islohoti obu zamin, ki solhoi 1925—28 guzaronida shud, dar taraqqii Pakhtakorii Osiyoi Miyona roli muhim bozid. Dar natijai industroniyu kollektivonii mamlakat Pakhtakori bosurat taraqqi kard. Okhiri panjsolai 1-um talaboti ba pakhta doshtan mam­lakat purra qone gardid.

Pakhtakorii Tojikiston niz asosan badi Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr ru ba taraqqi nihod. Plani panjsolai 1-umi respublika ba Pakhtakori diqqati jiddi dod. Dar natijai kollektivonii khojagii qishloq Pakhtakori khele pesh raft. Hosili umumii pakhta dar respublika az 38,6 hazor tonna (1928) to 50,6 hazor tonna (1932) afzud.  Panjsolai

Rzbekistoya …. Tochikiston …. Turkmaniston . . . Oaarboychon . . . . Dazosiston . . . . 1 Kirgiziston . . . GSSSR 429,3

26,7

69.4

103,2

15,0

21.6

666

I-              172.4 222,0* 220,2

42.6           71,2 2191,9

1616,4

223

257.8

2.14.8        45,6 73,0

2441.8

1782.7        254,5 397,2

193.0

44.0           74,9

2745.8

1731,5

264,9

484,7

209,6

115,3

74.0

2880.0

1878

308

508

250

127

76

3147

12,2

12,1

10,0

6,2

6,6

13,1

>10,8

20,3

23.2

16.3           16,6

11.5           17,7

19.6

24.1

26.7

21.5

15.6

18.8           22,9

23.2

26,2

23,6

21.0

17.4

23.9

25.0

25.1

80,8

33.2           23,0

25.3           29,5

28.4           29.2

33.2

32.8

24.8           35,4

28.2           28,2 31,7

 

2-yum dar taraqqii Pakhtakorii respublika ahamiyati kalon dosht. Zaminhoi bekorkhobidai vodii Vakhsh koram va yakchand kolkhozu sovkhozho tashkil karda shu­dand, ki dar istehsoli pakhtai mahinnakh roli kalon bozidand. Solhoi 1933—37 istehsoli pakhta nazar ba solhoi 1927—32 az 253,5 hazor tonna to 515,5  hazor tonna yo ziyoda az 2 (az jumla pakh­tai navi soveti 1,7 va pakhtai navi mahinnakh 15) barobar afzud. Soli okhiri panjsola (1938) Tojikiston ba Vatan 1784 tonna pakhta furukht, hosili miyonai pakhtai respub­lika ba 17,9 sentner/gektar rasid. Respublika az jihati hosilnokii pakhta dar «SSSR hoi yakumro ishgol kard. Dar davrai Jangi Buzurgi Vatani hosili umumii pakhta ham va hosilnokii on past shud. Bad az jang Pakhtakori az nav ru ba taraqqi nihod. Sentyabr 1945 Hukumati Soveti «Doir ba minbad taraqqi dodani pakhtakorii Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Tojikiston» va iyuni 1946 «Doir ba plan va tadbirhoi barqarorkuni va inkishofi minbadai pakhtakorii Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Tojikiston dar solhoi 1946—50» qarori makhsus qabul kard. Kolkhozu sovkhozho in karorhoro ba hayot tatbiq va ba yorii moddii davlat takya namuda, hosilnokii pakhtaro khele baland bardoshtand. Dar solhoi panjsolai 4-um (1946—50) zamini kishti pakhta 31% ziyod shuda, ba 126 hazor gektar rasid. Hosili umumii pakhta nazar ba davrai torevolyutsioni 3,3 marotiba afzud.

Komiteti Markazii  KPSS va Soveti Vazironi SSSR az 5 iyuni 1954 «Dar borai taraqqii minbadai pakhtakori dar Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Tojikiston dar solhoi 1954—60 qaror qabul kard, ki on ba vaseshavii zamini kishti pakhta, baland bardoshtani hosilnoki va afzoishi hosili umumii on madadi kalon rasond. To okhiri panjsolai 5-um (4950—55) zamini kishti pakhtai respublika 36 hazor  gektar ziyod shud. Soli 1955 Tojikiston ba davlat 400,3 hazor tonna pakhta suporid.

Pakhtasuporii respublika dar panjsolahoi minbada niz bosurat taraqqi kard. Soli 1971 zamini kishti pakhta nazar ba davrai torevolyutsioni 9,8 barobar, hosili umumii on ziyoda az 20 va hosilnokiash 2,5 barobar afzud. Soli 1978 Tojikiston dar bayni respublikahoi pakhtakori Ittifoqi Soveti az jihati hosilnokii pakhta joi 1-um va az jihati hosili umumi joi 3-yumro ishgol kard. Kolkhozu sovkhozhoi respublika ba davlat 909 hazor tonna pakh­ta furukhtand, ba hisobi miyona az har gektar 30,8 sentner pakhta giriftand. To­jikiston ba manbai asosii pakhtai navi mahinnakhi mamlakat tabdil yoft. Soli 1979 dar Tojikiston 262,4 hazor tonna pakhtai mahinnakh (qarib 35%-i pakhtai mahinnakhi SSSR) gun- doshtand, hosilnokiash ba 31,0 sentner/gektar (dar jahon hosilnokii az hama ba­land) rasid. Soli 1979 dar respublika 144 kolkhoz va 45 sovkhoz pakhta kosht.

Pakhtakori na tanho az hisobi koram kardani zaminhoi nav, inchunin dar natijai ba vujud ovardan va jori na­mudani navhoi serhosili pakhta niz taraqqi kard.

Solhoi 1928—30 dar payoni Saroikamar (hozira rayoni Panj) faqat navi pakhtai mahinnakhi «Sakelyardis» kishtand (3 hazor gektar). Soli 1931 az Misr ba vodii Vakht navhoi «Pima», «Maarat», «Ashmuni», «Afifi» va gayraro ovardand, Soli 1932 faqat du nav («Pima» va Maarat»)-ro kisht kardand. Dar in solho seleksioner V. P. Krasichkov az navhoi nomburda navi navi № 23-ro ba vujud ovard. Vay navhoi khorijiro purra ivaz kard. V. P. Krasichkov minbad navi navi balandsifatp 504— V-ro ofarid, ki bo navi pakhtai mahinnakhi Turkmenii «2 I 3» mavqei asosiro ishgol namud. Solhoi 1952—66 navhoi 5904-I, 5595-V (az 1963) kishta shudand. Az soli 1977 navhoi 6249-V, 6465-V, 7318-V (seleksioneron V.P. Krasichkov va B. Sanginov ba vujud ovardaand) kishta meshavand. Soli 1980 navi navi tezrasi «Drujba-60»-ro niz, ki seleksioneron M. Jumaev, Sh. Ibrohimov va digar ofaridand, kisht kardand (taqriban- 3 hazor tonna).

Oid ba pakhtal miyonanakhi soveti az soli 1952 injonib tadqiqot mebarand. Soli 1977 seleksioner M. Chumaev va digar navi navi «Regar-1» (aavalin nav dar respublika)-ro ofaridand. Dar rayonhoi pakhtakori Tojikiston navi pakhtai miyonanakhi 108-F, Toshkent-1, Regar-1 va 133 kisht meshavand.

Zamini kishti pakhtai navi ma­hinnakh az 3,5 hazor gektar (1930) to 84,7 hazor tonna (1979), hosilnokii miyonaash az har gektar muvofiqan az 3,1 to 31,0 sentner, hosili umumiash az 1,1 to 262,4 hazor tonna ziyod shud.

Yake az omilhoi muhimtarini tarakkii bosurati Pakhtakori vase jori namudani mekhanikonii kompleksi va istifodai nurihoi minerali meboshad. Dar jamovarii harsolai hosil moshini pakhtachini ahamiyati ka­lon dorad. Soli 1979 bo moshinho beshtar az 225 hazor tonna pakhta (ziyoda az 25%-i hosili umumi) jamovari karda shud. Dar har gektar zamini kish­ti pakhtai Tojikiston ba hisobi miyona 250—260 kilogramm nurihoi nitrogendor, 140—450 kilogramm nurihoi fosfordor va 100—120 kilogramm nurihoi kaliydor istifoda meshavand. Dar prosessi korkardi pakhta az on 27—34%’ nakh va 60—70% chigit megirand. Chigit 18—24%’ ravgan dorad (nig. Ravgani pakhta). Az bargu poyai pakhta 100, az nakhash qarib 50 va az chigit ziyoda az 45 nav mahsulot tayyor mekunand. Az mahsuloti Pakhtakori bisyor sohahoi sanoat (bofandagi, aviasiya, khimiya, avtomobil va gayra) istifoda mebarand.

 

 

  I960 1965 | 1970 1975 1979 I960 1965 1970 1975 1*979 {960 1965 1970 1975 1979
Leninobod 42,2 65,3 65.8 72,5 89,7 71,3 141,9 154,4 217,3 238,5 16,9 21,8 23.5 30.0 26.6
KUrgon t e p p a 69,7 88,3 100.2 100.8 128.4 157.9 238.8 303,8 302,0 393.5 22,7 27.0 30.3 30,0 30.6
Kulob . . Rayonkhoi vo- 26.4 35,3 37.1 47,4 52,9 67,8 104.7 123,2 158,8 170 25,7 29,7 33,1 33,7 32,2
dni Disor Dar respubli- 34,1 39,0 50,7 50,7 33,3 102,4 124,2 145,0 156.0 101.4 30,0 31,8 28.0 30,8 30.4
na … . 172.4 227,9 253.8 271,4 304,3 399,4 600.4 726,4 834,1 903.4 23,2 26,7 28.6 30.7 29.7

Az hosili 1 gektar pakhta (agar hosilnokiash ba hisobi miyona 30 sentner bo- shad) 7—8,5 hazor metr2 mato, 277 kilogramm ravgani pakhta, 726 kilogramm kunjora, 47 kilogramm sobun, 108 kilogramm pakhtai sof, 240 kilogramm chigit va digar mahsulot megirand. SSSR az jihati istehsol va hosilnokii pakhta dar jahon joi 1-umro (1979) ishgol mekunad. Soli 1979 dar SSSR 9,2 million tonna, az jumla dar Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Tojikiston 903 hazor tonna pakhta istehsol karda shud. Soli 1979 Uzbekiston 62,9%, Turkmaniston 13,3%’ Tojikiston 9,8%, Ozarboyjon 8,1%, Qazoqiston 3,6% va Qirgiziston 2,3%-i pakhtai SSSR- ro istehsol kardand (nigared jadvali 1).

Dar Tojikiston pakhtaro asosan dar viloyathoi Leninobod, Qurgonteppa, Kulob va rayonhoi vodii Hisor parvarish mekunand (nigared jadvali 2 va 3).

Adabiyot: Nagi b i n Ya. D., Makhmudov R . Usulhoi peshqadami parvarishi pakh­ta dar Tojikiston, Dushanbe, 1964; Khlopkovod­stvo Tadjikskoy Sovetskoy Sotsialisticheskoy Respubliki, chast 1, Stalinabad, 1957; Khlopkovodstvo, Moskva, 1963; Khlopko­vodstvo i primenenie mineralnikh udobreniy v Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Dushanbe, 1969; Nagibin Ya. D., K r e y d i k V. M.. Razvitie khlop­kovodstva v Tadjikskoy Sovetskoy Sotsialisticheskoy Respubliki, Dushanbe. 1969; Gafurov B. G., Tadjiki. Drevnyaya, drevneyshaya i srednevekovaya istoriya, Moskva, 1972; Djumaev Moskva, Voprosi sor­tovoy agrotekhniki khlopchatnika v Vakhto­voy, Gissarskoy i Surkhan-Sherabadskoy dolinakh. Tashkent. 1973.

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