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Osiyoi Miyona

Osiyoi Miyona 1) qismi osiyoii territoriya, ki az bahri Kaspiy dar Farb to sarhadi Khitoy dar Sharq va az bakhshtohi Aralu Irtish dar Shimol to sarhadi Eronu Afgoniston dar Janub tul kashidaast. To taqsimoti milliyu davlati (1924—25) Osiyoi Miyonaro Movarounnahr menomidand, soni Osiyoi Miyona menomidagi shudand (Dar muqobili Osiyoi Markazi). Dar adabiyoti geografii khoriji bazan mafhumhoi «Osiyoi Miyona» va «Osiyoi Markazi»-ro az ham farq namekunand.

Tabiati Osiyoi miyona. Qismi ziyodi territoriyai Osiyoi Miyona  hamvor buda, onro pastii Turon ishgol kardaast (ba on az Shimoli Sharq hamvori va biyobonhoi havzai Balkhashu Alokul, az Shimol qismi janubii pushtakuhi Turgay va kuhhoi pasti Qazoqiston bo landshafti nimbiyo­boni va khushki dashti payvast shu­daand. Balandii dar qismi hamvorii  Osiyoi Miyona joy doshta az — 28 metr (sohili sharqii bahri Kaspiy) to 300 metr, ammo chuqurii baze pastkhamiho az sathi bahr to 132 metr, dar qismi Qaragii janubi Manqishloq, 81 metr (Oqchaquy; shimoli garbii Qaroqum) pastand. Ba­landin kuhhoi baze joyhoi biyobonhoi Qizilqum (quhi Tomditog) to 922 metr merasad.

Osiyoi miyona

Baroi territoriyai hamvori Osiyoi Miyona pay dar ham ivazshavii pasti va hamvorihoi akkumulyativi, az jumla bo regzorhoi allyuvialivi qa­dim (qismi ziyodashro biyobonhoi Qaroqum, Muyunqum va gayra faro giriftaast), bo pahnkuhhoi pastu ba­land (pushtakuhhoi Ustyurt, pahnkuhi Krasnovodsk va gayra) va hamvorihoi denudasioni (pastkuhhoi Qazo- qiston, qismi sharqii biyoboni Bet- pakdala va gayra) khos ast. Biyobonhoi Osiyoi Miyona az Garb ba Sharq (az bahri Kaspiy to kuhhoi Tiyonshon) ba masofai ziyode az 1000 kilometr tul kashidaavd va qarib dar hamai onho rastanihoi garmoparvar meruyand, ki baroi parvarishi chorvo (buzu gusfand) va shutur charogohhoi qulayand. Dar biyobonho shurzaminho va sanglokhho niz hastand. Hamvorihoi Osiyoi Miyona baroi dekhqoni, asosan baroi kishti pakhta na galla, istifoda meshavand.

Qismi janubi sharqii Osiyoi Miyonaro sis­temam kuhhoi Tiyonshon (kuhi «Galaba», balandinash 7439metr) va Pomiru Oloy, ki nuqtai balandtarini SSSR ast (quhi «Kommunizm», 7495 metr), ishgol kardaand. Dar janubi Osiyoi Miyona qatorkuhi Kopettog joy giriftaast, ki az sathi bahr to 2942 metr baland ast. Iqlimi qismi hamvorii Osiyoi Miyona beshtar aridi (biyoboniyu nimbiyoboni) ast; dar kuhho iqlimi kulhoi kalonu khurd mavjudand, ki kalontarini onho bahri Aral va kuli Balkhash meboshad. Daryohoi ka­lontarini Osiyoi Miyona Amu va Sir, Ili ba bahri Aral va kuli Balkhash merezand.

Sarvathoi zerizaminii Osiyoi Miyona khele ziyod va gunogunand. Dar vodii Far­goai Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii  Uzbekiston, biyoboni Qaroqum, va digar joyho konhoi neft mavjudand. Az rui zakhirahoi gazi tabiy Osiyoi Miyona dar SSSR yake az joyhoi avvalinro ishgol mekunad. Konhoi gaz dar Gazli, Shodlik, tillo dar Biyoboni Qizilqum (Murintog) mavjudand.

Osiyoi Miyona az angishtsang boy meboshad, ki zakhirai on az rui hisobi olimon ba 40,8 milliard tonna (muvofiqi malumothoi soli 1955) merasad. Dar havzahoi Fonu Yagnob (Rabot, zakhiraash 846 million tonna va Shurob (zakhiraash 3 milliard tonna). Ohangaron (zakhiraash 2,8 milliard tonna) angishtsangi alosifat istehsol karda meshavad. Dar chanubi Qazoqiston va Tojikistoni Shimoli konhoi ohan (zakhiraash 60 million tonna) hastand. Dar Osiyoi Miyona metallhoi ranga va digar metallhoi kamyoft: mis, qurgoshim, nuqra, tillo, simob, vis­mut, qalagy va gayra mavjudand, ki ahamiyati kaloni sanoati dorand.

2) Osiyoi Miyona territoriyaest, ki on Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii Tojikiston, Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii Turkmaniston., Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii Uzbekiston, Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii Qirgizistonro dar bar megirad. On rayoni iqtisodii osiyoimiyonagiro tashkil medihad..

Aholi. Miqdori umumii aholii Osiyoi Miyona 25 480 hazor nafar (1979), zichii aholi dar 1 kilometr2 takhminan az 1—4 (dar biyobon va nimbiyobonho) to 300 nafar (dar viloyati Andijoni Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii Uzbekiston). Dar shahrho 10 362 hazor nafar, yo khud qarib 41%i aholii Osiyoi Miyona zindagi mekunad. Aholii Osiyoi Miyona az soli 1940 to 1979 qarib 2,5 barobar afzud. In natijai dar SSSR az hama ziyod budani miqdori tavallud (3—4%) va inchunin migrasiyai aholi (az soli 1953 to 1974 ba Osiyoi Miyona va Qazoqiston ka­rib 1. 2 mln kas kuchgada omadaast) meboshad. Aholii mahallii Osiyoi Myona tojikon, uzbekho, turkmanho, qirgizho, qaraqalpoqho va gayra meboshand. Az sababi on ki khalqhri Osiyoi Miyona asrho yakchoya zindagi va aloqa dorand, dar sohai madaniyati moddi va manavii onho bisyor jihathoi mushtarakro didan mumkin.

In jikhathoi mushtarak pesh az hama dar natijai yagonagii tarikhi va nazdikii unsurhoi etniki ba vujud omadaand. Dar natijai taraqqiyoti duru darozi etniki guruhhoi mardumi kuchmanchi, ki qismashon az berun omada, dar zinahoi gunoguni tarikhi dar Osiyoi Miyona joygir shudaand, khalqiyati kalonero tashkil dodaand. Dar sharoiti sokhti sovetii tojikon, uzbekho, qirgizho, turkmanho, karoqalpoqho hamchun millati sotsialisti tashakkul yofta, sohibi respublikai millii khud gardidand. Ba gayr az khalqhoi nomburda dar Osiyoi Miyona digar khalqkhoi SSSR — rusho, totoru boshqirdho, qazoqkho, ukrainkho, belorusho, mordvaho, armanho. gurchiho, ozariho, osetinho va digar zindagi mekunand.

Inchunin khalqkhoe niz hastand (yahudiho, koreyagiho, uygurho, dunganho, arabho, kurdho, eroliho, baluchho va digar), ki qismi onkho berun az khoki O.siyoi Miyona zindagi mekunand. Hamai respublikahoi Osiyoi Miyona sermillatand. Aholi bo zabonhoi modari, inchunin guruhi zabonhoi gunogun gap mezanad. Turkzabonho, ki az gurukhi turkii oilai oltoy mebo­shand, 70%-i aholii Osiyoi Miyonaro tash­kil medihand: uzbekho —12102 hazor, turkmanho —4998 hazor , qirgizho — 1877 khazor, qaroqalpoqho —298 khazor, Kazoqkho — 727 hazor, totorho — 841 khazor nafar va gayra. Ba zabonhon guruhi eronii oilai hinduevropoi tojikon 2855 hazor kas, az jumla yagnobiho va khalqhoi Pomir, shugnoniho, rushoniho, vakhoniho, ishkoshimikho, yazgulomiho va digar, ki qarib tamoman bo tojikon omekhta shuda­and), inchunin kurdho va baluchho — khamagi qarib 11% (muvofiqi malumoti soli 1970) aholii Osiyoi Miyona gap mezanand. Dar viloyathoi hamshafat (makhsusan dar Bukhoro va Samarqand) tojikon va uzbeskho maskun buda, aksariyati onkho har du zabonro nagz medonand. Zaboni yakhudiyon niz to­jiki buda, makhsusiyathoi lakhjavi dorad, arabho ba uzbeki yo tojiki (vobasta ba on ki bo kadom khalq yakchoya zindagi mekunand) gap mezanand.

jugiho — ba tojiki. Rusho (3322 hazor) va ukrainho (296 hazor nafar), ki asosan dar shahrho (dar Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii  Qirgiziston boshad, baraks dar qishloqjoyho) zindagi mekunand, ki qarib 17%’ aholii Osiyoi Miyonaro tashkil medi­hand (Raqamhoi zikrshuda muvofiqi ruykhatgirii soli 1979). Qisme az onho (makhsusan onhoe, ki dar Osiyoi Miyona der boz zindagi mekunand) ba gayr az zaboni modarii khud zaboni hamon khalqhoi mahalliero medonand, ki bo onho yakchoya zindagi mekunand. Za­boni rusi ba zabonhoi mahalli tasiri kalon merasonad. Zabonhoi khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona tarkibi lugavii khudro az hisobi zaboni rusi boy kar­da, aksariti istilohoti siyosi va ilmiyu tekhnikiro az on giriftaand. Zaboni rusi tadrijan ba zaboni baynimillii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona tabdil me- yobad. Khalqhoi mahallii Osiyoi Miyona ba vositai zaboni rusi na tanho bo adabiyot va madaniyati boi khalqhoi sermillati soveti, balki bo osori manavii khalqhoi tamomi dunyo shinos meshavand.

Tarikhi omuzishi Osiyoi Miyona Bo malumothoi avvalin oid ba qabilayu khalqhoi qadimii Osiyoi Miyona dar aksariya­ti osori muarrikhonu geografhoi yunoniyu rimi Gerodot, Ksenofont, Polibiy, Diodori Sitsiliyagi, Stra­bon, Plutarkh, Arrian va digar dar asrhoi avvali milod boshad, dar qaydhoi sayyohoni khitoi Syuan Szan. Chjan Syai, Khoy Chao (oid ba sarvathoi tabii Osiyoi Miyona), dar asrhoi 9—10 dar osori olimon Balozuri, Tabari, Yasubi, Narshakhi, Ibni Khurdodbey, Ibni Fazlon, Ibni Khavsal, Muqaddasi (oid ba tarikhu madaniyat), dar «Hudud-ul- olam» va gayra duchor meoem.

Olimoni asrhoi 11—12 Beruni, Bayhaqi, Gardezi, Makhmudi Qoshgari, Yusufi Balasaguni va digar dar osori khud dar borai shaklhoi zamindori, kishtu kor, etnogenez, muallimi asri 13 Ibni Asir, Juvayni, Ibni Batutta roje ba tarzi zindagii tojikonu digar khalqhoi muqimii Movarounnahr malumot dodaand. Dar asri 13 sayohoni avrupoi Plano Karpini, Bil­lem Ruyuruk, Marko Polo, Klaviho badi safarhoi khud ba Osiyoi Miyona, avrupoiyonro bo tarzi zisti khalqhoi in bilod, az jumla tojikon meshinosonand.

Ulamoi asrhoi 14—15 Rashiduddin, Hofizi Abru, Hamdulloi Qazvini, Abdurrazzosi Samarqanda, Nizomuddini Shomi, Mirkhond, Khondamir dar osori khud beshtar ba masalahoi tarikh, geografiya va etnagrafiyai khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona diqqat dodaand. Merosi muallifi asri 16 Vosifi, Hofizi Tanish, Afzaluddin Fazlulloh, Bobur, Mahmudi Gijduvoni, Mahmudi Natanzi, Mahmud ibni Vali dar omuzishi Osiyoi Markazi ahamiyati kalon dorand. Zumra mas- alahoi tarikhi Osiyoi Miyona dar osori olimoni asrhoi 17—18 Muhammadyusu- fi Munshi, Mirmuhammad Amini Bukhoroi, Abdurahmoni Tole va digar inikos gardidaand.

Dar asri 16 bayni Osiyoi Miyona va davlati Rus munosibathoi tijorati muqarrar gardida, bo maqsadi shinosoi bo in kishvar az tarafi shohoni rus yak qator ekspedisiyayu saforatho (F. Benevini, A. Jenkinson) tashkil karda meshavad. Barrasii bisyor masalahoi tarikhi ijtimoiyu iqtisodii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyonapo dar osori muarrikhoni asri 19 Mukham­mad Hakimkhon, Abutohirkhoja, Mirzoshamsi Bukhoroi, olimu mutafakkiri tojik Ahmadi Donish mebinem.

Badi ba Rossiya hamroh shudani Osiyoi Miyona Jamiyati geografii rus bo sarvarii P. P. Semyonov-Tyanshanskiy dar omuzishu tadqiqi tarikhu ge­ografiyai in kishvar roli kalon bozid. Solhoi 70 asri 19 dar Toshkent

Kitobkhonai ommavii Turkiston tashkil yoft. Bibliagrafi rus I. I. Mejov (iborat az 416 jild «Majmuai Turkiston» .murattab sokht. Dar okhiri asri 19 — ibtidoi asri 20 ba nohiyahoi gunoguni Osiyoi Miyona, az jumla ba Pomir (A. P. Fedchenko, V. F. Oshanin), Bukhoroi Sharqi (N. A. Maev, A. P. Karpinskiy), vodii Zarafshon (L. L. Kun, K. G. Zaleman), vodii Fargona (N. A. Seversov, G. E. Grum-Grjimaylo va digar ekspedisiyahoi sershumori ilmi tashkil karda shudand.

Baroi tadqiqi hamatarafai Osiyoi Miyona jamiyahoi makhsusi ilmi tasis yoftand. Dar bayni muhaqqiqoni tarikhi Osiyoi Miyona a k ademik V. V. Bartold, M. S. Andreev va A. A. Semyonov joi namoyonro ishgol menamoyand. Kish- varshinosoni mahallii okhiri asri 19— ibtidoi asri 20. Akrampolvon Askarov, Abusaid Makhdum, Mirzoi Bukhoroi, Khoji Antiqa, Khoji Yusuf Mirfayozov dar tadqiqi tarikhu madaniyati kishvari khud hissaguzori kardaand.

Omukhtani Osiyoi Miyona pas az barpo shudani Hokimiyati Soveti avj girift. Dar tadqiqi komllesksii Osiyoi Miyona olimoni mashhuri soveti E. N. Pavlov­skiy, A. A. Freyman, S. F. Olden­burg, M. M. Dyakonov, M. E. Masson, V.M. Masson, A. P. Okladnikov, P. Tolstov, A. Yu. Yakubovskiy, G. F. Debes, A. M. Beleniskiy, V. A. Livshis, B. A. Litvinskiy va digar hissai arzanda guzoshtand. Khususan khizmati B. G. Gafurov dar tadqiqi tarikhu tamadduni khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona nihoyat kalon ast. Baroi tadqiqi kompleksii Osiyoi Miyona borho ekspedisiyai arkheologiyu etnografi tash­kil karda shudand.

Dar Tojikiston badi tasisi (1951) Instituti tarikhi ba nomi Ahmadi Donish tadqiqi kompleksii Osiyoi Miyona vusat yoft. Olimon 3. Sh. Rajabov, S. A. Rajabov, B. I. Iskandarov, A. Mukhtorov, N. Nematov, V. A. Rakov, A. Jalilov, M. Shukurov va digar ba tadqiqi tarikhu tamadduni khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona, az jumla tojikon mashguland.

Ocherki tarikhi. Osiyoi Miyona az qadimtarin markazhoi jamiyati insoni meboshad. YOdgorihoi davrahoi gunoguni jamiyati ibtidoi, monandi Qarokamar, Ogzikichik,  Shugnov, Oqtangi Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii Tojikiston), Obi Rahmat, Amon Qutan, Gori Temur, kuli Komsomol, Teshiktosh Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii Uzbekiston). olothoi mehnat, ki az nazdikii shahri Krasnovodsk Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii Turkiston), Tiyonshoni Markazi, qismi sharqii vodii Fargona va gayra yoft shudaand, daleli onand, ki aho­lii in mavzeho 200—300 hazor sol to milod guruh-guruh zindagi karda, dar tashakkuli odami namudi hozira — homo sapiens ishtirok kardaand.

Skeleti pisarbachai 12-sola, ki az gori Teshiktosh yoft shudaast, nishon medihad, ki ma-shguliyati asosii onho shikori hayvonoti vahshi bud. Dar hazorahoi 30 to ,milod dar qismhoi taraqqikardai Osiyoi Miyona aholi ba sokhti avlodi meguzarad. Dar asri navi sang — neolit va asri sangu mis — eneolit (hazorahoi 6—4 to milod) aho­lii domanahoi kuhhoi Kopetdog va sohilhoi daryoi  Amu ba ziroatkori va chorvodori meguzarand. YOdgorihoi avvalini aholii ziroatkori in davra bo nomi madaniyati Jaytun (ha­zorahoi 6—5 to milod) malum ast. YOdgorihoi in madaniyat dar domanahoi kuhhoi Kopetdog (Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii  Turkiston) kashf gardidaand.

Aholii in joyho ba hunarmandi (kulolgari, bofandagi) niz mashgul budand. YOdgorihoi dar domanahoi kuhhoi Hisor yoftshuda niz ba davrahoi neolit taalluq doshta, bo nomi madaniyati Hisor malumand. Ba madaniyathoi eneolit va asri birinji madaniyathoi Anov (hazorahoi 5—2 to milod) Safoliteppa, Chust, Dilvarzinteppa, Zamonbobo, Qayroqqum, Vakht, Beshkent, Sarazm khosand. Aholii davrai madaniyathoi Anov (Namozgohteppa, Qaroteppa, Oltinteppa, Tokhirboyteppa, Guksur), Safoliteppa, Chuet, Dilvarzinteppa va qisman Qayroqqum asosan ba ziroatkori va chorvodorii khojagi mashgul budand. Madaniyati Beshkent va Vakhon tanho ba territoriyai Pespublikai Sovetii Cotsialistii Tojikiston khos meboshad. Ba osori in madaniyat yodgorihoi Ariqtov, Tulkhor, Soi Pa­langon, Oykul, Jarkul, Vakhsh, Mako­ni Mor, Ahtam Sahoba va digar monandand.Dar asri birinji qabilahoi Osiyoi Miyona ba komyobihoi kalon sohib shudand. Ziroat ba vasilai obyorii suni taraqqi mekunad, az sokhti modarshohi ba padarshohi guzashtan ogoz meyobad, shahrhoi kaloni (masohatashon az 10 to 70 gektar) istehkomdor paydo meshavand.

Asri ohan. Dar choryaki avvali hazorai 1 to  milod aholii Osiyoi Miyona korkard va istifodai ohanro omukht, ki vay ba­roi taraqqiyoti minbadai jamiyat akhamiyati kalon dosht. Dar Osiyoi  Miena yodgorihoi asri ohan bisyorand. Bostonshinoson dar janubi Tojikiston (Qalai Mir), dar Pomiri Sharqi, Tojikistoni Shimoli (Qayroqqum), Uzbekiston, Turkmaniston va digar joyho boshishgohhoi asri ohanro yoftand. Sanai tashakkuli sugdiyon, khorazmiyon, bokhtariho va digar qavmhoi bostonii Osiyoi Markazi ba hazorai 1 to milod rost meoyad.

Dar okhiri hazorai 2 va avvali hazorai 1 to milod dar Osiyoi Miyona sokhti chamoai ibtidoi ru ba tanazzul nihoda, nakhustin davlathoi gulomdorii Boxtar, Sugd va Khorazm paydo shudand. Dar miyonahoi asri 6 to milod qismi ziyodi Osiyoi  Miyonaro shohi Eron Kurushi II istilo namuda, onro ba davlati Hahomanishiyon hamroh kard. Muvofiqi malumoti muarrikhi yunoni Ge­rodot (asri 5 to milod) Kurushi II bo maqsadi istilo kardani zaminhoi qabilahoi bodiyanishin ba viloyathoi shimoli sharqii Osiyoi Miyona lashkar kashid, ammo az massagetho, ki ba onho ma­lika Tumirisa sardori mekard, shi­kast khurd.

Solhoi 329—327 to milod Iskandari Maqduni bo dushvori Osiyoi Miyonaroro zabt namud. Aholii mahalli ba istilogaron muqobiliyati sakht nishon dod. Lashkari Iskandar az jumla dar Istaravshan ba muqobiliyati sakht duchor shud. Poytakhti Istaravshan shahri Kurukada (Uroteppai khozira) badi muhosirai duru daroz ba dasti yunoniho guzasht. Iskandar to nazdikii Khujand omada, sohili chapi daryoi Sirro ba istehkom tabdil dod va ba on Iskandariyai Aqso nom guzosht.

In shahr-istehkom meboist hududi shimoli sharqii davlati Iskandarro az qabilai bodiyanishini sakoiho muhofizat mekard. Dar in vaqt dar Suud va Bokhtar shurish cap zad, ki ba on lashkarkashi boistedod Spitamen rohbari mekard. Faqat badi zadukhurdhoi ziyode Is­kandar dar Sugd va Bokhtar oromii insonro jori karda tavonist va tobistoni 327 to milod az daryoi Amu gu- zashta, ba tarafi Hinduston raft. Badi margi Iskandari Makduni (soli 323 to milod) Osiyoi Miyona ba hayati dav­lati sulolai Selevkiyon dokhil shud. Dar in davra bokhtariho, sugdiho va digar khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona ba muqobili davlati Selevkiyon muttahid shu­dand. Dar miyonai asri 3 to milod dar qismi janubi garbii Osiyoi Miyona davlati Port va dar territoriyai Bokhtar va Sugd davlati Yunonu Bokhtar tashkil yoft.

Dar bayni solhoi 140—130 to milod davlati Yunonu Bokhtar dar zeri fishori ittihodiyai qabilahoi bodiya­nishini yujiho az bayn raft. Dar asohoi 2 to milod; dar Osiyoi Miyona yak qator davlathoi gulomdori (dar shimoli sharqii— Kangyuy, dar vodil Fargona — Davon paydo shudand. Davrai gul-gulshukufii madaniyati gulomdori dar Osiyoi Miyona ba asrhoi 1—4 milod— davrai hukmronii davlati Kushoniyon rost meo­yad. In davlat dar viloyathoi janubi Osiyoi Miyona ba vujud omada bud. Poytakhti davlati Kushoniyon shahri Balkh (hozira Afgonistoni Shimoli) bud.

Badi tanazzuli davlati Port (dar nimai avvali asri 3 milod) viloyathoi garbii Osiyoi Miyona ba ikhtiyori davlati Sosoniyon meguzarand. Dar asri 4 va 5 milod dar territoriyai Bokhtar va Sugd davlati Haytoliyon tashkil meyobad, poytakhtash shahri Bodiyon (Afgonistoni Shimolii hozira) bud. Davlati Haytoliyon purquvvat shuda, hatto bo davlati Sosoniyon raqobat mekard. Dar okhiri asri 5 —avvali asri 6 ba davlati Haytoliyon qarib tamomi viloyathoi Osiyoi Miyona va hatto Qoshgaru Khutan dokhil meshudand. Davla­ti Haytoliyon az zarbai qabilahoi kuchmanchii turk, ki az Haftrud ba Osiyoi Miyona zada daromada budand, parokanda shud va territoriyai vay ba Khoqonii turk tobe gardid.

Dar in vaqt Osiyoi Miyona ba yak chand mulkhoi kalonu khurd taqsim meshud, ki onhoro podshohon va hokimoni mahalli idopa mekardand. Dar asrhoi 7—8 dar vodihoi Zarafshonu Qashqadaryo davlati Sugd va dar viloyathoi janubi Uzbekiston, Tojikiston va Afgonistoni Shimoli guruhi davlathoi Takhoriston mavjud budand. Viloyathoi Khorazm, Istaravshanu Fargona niz mulkhoi puriqtidor budand.

Dar avvali asri 8 khilofati arab ba istiloi Osiyoi Miyona shuru karda, onro bo dushvori zabt namud. Solhoi 720—722 dar Sugd shurishi kaloni ziddi is- tilogaron cap zad. Sugdiyon bo yorii turkoni bodiyanishin lashkari khi­lofatro shikast doda, Samarqandro muvaqqatan ozod kardand. Avvalin hujumi lashkari arab ba Khatlon (hozira viloyati Kulob) bo maglubiyati arabho anjom yoft. Nihoyat istilogaron Osiyoi Miyonaro zabt karda, dar in jo zuran dini islomro jori namudand. Ba aholii Osiyoi Miyona andozhoi vaznin, az jumla andozi sarikasi va digar uhdadorihoi naturali bor karda shud. Hukmroni va zulmu istibdodi khi- lofat ba shurishhoi sershumore ovarda rasond. Kalontarin shurishi ziddi khilofat shurishi «safedjomagon» bud, ki ba on Hakim ibni Kho­shim mulaqqab ba Muqanna rohbari mekard.

Dar asri 9 Osiyoi Miyona az khilofati arab judo shud va dar territoriyai on nakhustin davlati mustaqili tojikon — avval Davlati Tohiriyon va soni davlati Somoniyon ba vujud omadand. Dar zamoni hukmronii sulolai Somoniyon (asri 9—10) tojikon yagonagi va mustaqilii siyosii kishvarro tamin na­mudand, ki in boisi taraqqy kardani quvvahoi istehsolkunandai khochagii qishloq, hunarmandi, savdo va ilmu madaniyat gasht. Dar okhiri asri 10 qismi sharqii Osiyoi Miyona ba davlati Qarokhoniyon va camti  janubi daryoi Amu ba davlati Gaznaviyon dokhil shud. Dar avvali asri 12 Osiyoi Miyonaro (qarokidoiyon) zabt kardand. Az nimai duyumi asri 12 cap karda ahamiyati siyosii Khorazm meafzoyad. Ba Khorazmshoh Alouddin Muhammadi II (1200—20) muyassar shud, ki qarokidoiyonro az Movarounnakhr va Qazoqistoni Janubi tang karda barorad.

Dar asri 9—10 tashakkuli khalqiyati toqik ba itmom rasid. Tashakkuli khalqiyathoi uzbek, turkman va digar khalqiyathoi Osiyoi Miyona dar asrhoi min- bada davom dosht. Asrhoi 9—12 dar Osiyoi Miyona munosibathoi feodali purra barqaror shudand. Shahrhoi kalontarin — Bukhoro, Samarqand, Khujand, Marv, Balkh, Nishopur, Urganj markazhoi muhimmi iqtisodi, madani va dini gardidand. Yak zumra simohoi barjastai ilmu farhang Foroby, Abualii Sino. Aburayhoni Beruni, Abuabdulloi Rudaki, Narshakhi, Nosiri Khisrav va digar to ba arsai madaniyati jahoni baromadand.

Dar asri 13 vodihoi obodi Osiyoi Miyona ba kharobazor tabdil yoftand. Soli 1219— 20 qushunhoi Chingizkhon Osiyoi Miyonaro zabt namud. Dar ibtidoi hujumi Chingizkhon ba Osiyoi Miyona aholii shahri Khujand bo sardorii Temur malik ba lashkari mugul muqobiliyati sakht nishon dod. Soli 1238 dar Bukhoro bar ziddi istilogaron shurishe ba amal meoyad, ki ba on kosibi elakbof Mahmudi Torobi sardori mekard. Dar asri 14 boshad, dar Osiyoi Miyona shurishhoi kaloni ziddimugul ba amal omadaand, ki ba onho Sarbadoron sarvari kardaand. Dar nimai duyumi asri 14 Osiyoi Miyonaro Temur (1370—1405) ba khud tobe namud.

Dar davrai hukmronii Temur va vorisoni u dar Osiyoi Miyona munosibathoi feodali ba avji taraqqiyot rasidand. Feodalon huquqhoi vasei sudiyu mamuri va an- dozgiri doshta, amalan hokimoni mustaqil budand. Ba vositai istismori berahmonai aholii mehnatkash va gorat kardani mamlakathoi hamsoya madrasaho, maqbaraho, masjidho, korvonsaroyho, pulho sokhta meshudand. Poytakhti davlati Temur shahri Samarqand ba markazi kaloni savdo va madaniyat tabdil yoft. Dar in davra hunarmandi va savdo taraqqi mekunad. Shoiri mashhuri tojik Abdurahmoni Jomi, shoir va mutafakkiri buzurgi uzbek Alisheri Navoi namoyandagoni barjastai adabiyoti in davra budand. Hokimi Sa­marqand Ulugbek maktabi marufi sitorashinosonro tasis kard.

Dar avvali asri 16 qabilahoi kuchmanchii uzbek Movarounnahrro zabt kar­da, davlati Shayboniyonro tashkil namudand, ki on badi az Samarqand ba Bukhoro (soli 1557) guzaronidand poytakht (dar zamoni Abdullohkhoni II) khonii Bukhoro nom girift. Dar zaminhoi Khorazm boshad, khonii Kheva tashkil yoft. Dar asrhoi 17—18 dar Osiyoi Miyona parokandagii feodali avj megirift. Dar bayni khonihoi Bukhoro va Kheva doim jang meraft. In jangho khonihoi Bukhoro va Khevaro sust karda, boisi kharobii khojagii qishloq, hunarmandi, savdo, qashshoqshavii dehqonon va kosibon gardidand.

Darajai inkishofi ijtimoiyu iqtisodii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona gunogun bud. Dar viloyathoi aholiashon bodiyanishin kho- jagii naturali hukmron bud. Aho­lii muqimi bo dekhqoni mashgul bud. Munosibathoi agrari dar in davra dar Osiyoi Miyona khele murakkab budand. Dar khonihoi Osiyoi Miyona chunin shaklhoi zamindori mavjud budand: zaminhoi davlati, khususi va zaminhoi muassisahoi dini (vaqf). Ijoragirandagoni zamin to 40—50% hosilro ba sohiboni zamin medodand. Bori andoz nihoyat vaznin bud. Dekhqonon gayr az adoi andozi davlati ba amaldoron va hokimoni mahalli niz andozu khiroj medodand, dar sokhtmoni rohho, qalaho, kandani juyborho va tamiri onho bemuzd ishtirok mekardand. Gulomdori va kharidu furushi gulomon dar Osiyoi Miyona to nimahoi asri 19 vujud doshtand. Adabiyot va sanat sust taraqqi mekard.

Solhoi 40 asri 18 ba Osiyoi Miyona shohi Eron Nodirshoh lashkar kashid, ammo ba­di margi vay davlatash parokanda shud va dar Bukhoro sulolai Mangitiya to soli 1920 hukmroni kard. Ba gayr az amorati Bukhoro dar asri 18 khonii Kheva va yakchand mulkhoi mustaqili feodali mavjud budand, ki dar bayni onho janghoi doimi meraftand.

Dar asri 16 dar inkshofi munosibathoi diplomati va tijoratii kho­nihoi Osiyoi Miyona va Rossiya davrai nav ogoz yoft. Asrhoi 16—17 khonihoi Khevayu Bukhoro ba Rossiya beshtar az 60 hayati safiron firistoda, dar navbati khud 10 hayati safironro ka­bul kardand. Asri 18 va nimai avvali asri 19 munosibathoi tijoratii bayni Bukhoroyu Kheva va Rossiya inkishof yoft. Qarib 25% ashyoi khomi az Osiyoi Miyona megiriftagii Rossiyaro pakhta tashkil medod. Dar khudi soli 1862 az Osiyoi Miyona ba Rossiya 343 hazor pud pakhta barovarda shud. Dar in davra talaboti sanoati Rossiya (makhsusan badi bekor kardani huquqi krepostnoy) ba ashyoi khom, makhsusan pakhta meafzud va onro meboist az Osiyoi Miyona megirift.

Dar on solho hukumatdoroni anglis ham maqsadi ba khud tobe kardani Osiyoi Miyonaro doshtand. Dar natija masalai Osiyoi Miyona boisi kashmakashii dip­lomatii Rossiyayu Angliya gardid. Nihoyat Rossiya solhoi 60 asri 19 ba Osiyoi Miyona lashkar kashid va az ziddiyati bayni khonii Qukandu amorati Bu­khoro istifoda burda, qismi ziyodi khonii Quqand va yak qismi territoriyai Bukhororo ishgol kard va soli 1867 general-gubernatorii Turkistonro tash­kil dod. Az rui shartnomai soli 1838 amorati Bukhoro istiqloliyati khudro az dast doda, ikhtiyoran ba Ros­siya dokhil shud. Soli 1873 khonii Kheva ham ba Rossiya hamrokh shudani khudro etirof kard. Rossiya az kashmakashhoi dokhilii khonii Quqand istifoda burda, soli 1876 onro purra barham dod. Baze qismati Turkmaniston dar natijai ekspedisiyai Akhaltekin (1880—81) ba Rossiya ham­roh shud.

Soli 1884—85 Atrek, Tajap. Marv va nohiyai Pand ikhtiyoran ba hayati Rossiya dokhil shudand. 10 sentyabri 1885 dar London namoyandagoni hukumati Rossiya va Angliya proto­kolero imzo kardand, ki muvofiqi on nohiyai Pand to daryoi Kushka ba Rossiya guzasht. 27 avgusti 1895 bayni Rossiyayu Angliya shartnomai digare ba imzo rasid, ‘ki muvofiqi on sarkhadi bayni Rossiyayu Afgoniston dar Pomir muayyan karda shud: zaminhoi tarafi chapi daryoi Pand, ki az bekihoi Rushon, Shugnon va Darvoz budand ba Afgoniston va zaminhoi tarafi rost ba amorati Bu­khoro guzashtand.

Ba Rossiya hamrod gardidani Osiyoi Miyona ba taraqqiyoti iqtisodiyoti in kishvar takon dod. Janghoi pay dar hame, ki bayni davlathoi Osiyoi Miyona  meshudu khojagihoro kharob mokard, khotima yoftand. Muvofiqi shartnomahoi soli 1873, ki Rossiya bo amiri Bukhoro va khoni Kheva imzo kard, dar in sarzamin gulomkhariyu gulomfurushi man karda shud. Xojagii qishloki Osiyoi Miyona ba manbai ashyoi khomi sanoat, asosan pakhta, tabdil doda shud. Dar barobari ta- raqqiyoti pakhtakori dar Osiyoi Miyona zavodhoi pakhtatozakuni, ravgankashi, khurokvori va digar korkhonahoi sanoati ba vujud (meomadand, ki in ba tashakku- li proletariati mahalli zamina ba vujud ovard. Baroi taraqqiyoti mu- nosibathoi moliyu puli dar Osiyoi Miyona sokhtmoni rohi ohan Zakaspiy (1880—89), payvastani rohi ohani Toshkent—Orenburg (1905), sokhtani rohi ohani dar vodii Fargona va amorati Bukhoro (1910—16) ahamiyati kalon dosht.

Barobari jihathoi musbati obek­tivi ba Rossiya hamroh shudani Osiyoi Miyona jihathoi manfi ham dosht. Khukumati podshohi dar Osiyoi Miyona  tartiboti mustamlikaviro jori namud. Dar amorati Bukhoro va khonii Kheva hu- kumati podshohi tartiboti peshtarai irtijoii feodaliro dastgiri mekard. Hukumati podshohi sinfi doroi Osiyoi Miyonaro dastgiri namuda, inchunin bo maqsadi ba khud paydo kar­dani takyagoh mahalhoi rusnishinro tashkil medod.

Solhoi 90 asri 19 dar kishvari Turkiston shumorai mahal­hoi rusnishin ba 44 rasid. Manfiathoi milli va iqtisodii khalqhoi mahalli ba inobat girifta na-meshud. Zulmu istibdod davom mekard. In holat boisi shurishhoi kaloni khalqi, ba monandi shurishhoi Khujand (soli 1872, 1880), Uroteppa (1873, 1875, 1880), kalontarin shurishi dehqonon dar Bukhoroi Sharqi bo sardorii Vose (1885—87), junbishi kalon dar Tashkent (1892), kalonta­rin harakati milii ozodikhohii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona va Qazoqiston (shu­rishi 1916 va gayra) gardid.

Barobari ba davrai imperializm dokhil shudani Rossiya dakholati ka­pitali rus va khorija ba iqtisodiyoti Osiyoi Miyona avj girift. Qarib dar tamomi shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona, az jumla Bukhoroyu Kheva shubahoi banki davlati va bankhoi shakhsi kushoda shudand, korkardi neft va angisht ogoz yoft. Vale qati nazar az hamai digargunihoi iqtisodi Osiyoi Miyona nisbat ba markazi Rossiya chun mamlakati agrari — mustamlikavi, manbai ashyoi khomi sanoat va bozori furushi mahsuloti sanoat mondan girift.

Gayri chashmdoshti hukumati podshohi va hukumatdoroni Bukhoroyu Kheva ba ham nazdikshavii siyosi va madanii khalqhoi mahalli va korgaroni rus, ziyoiyoni demokrat va dehqononi muhojir ba vujud omad, ki in ahamiyati kalon dosht. Marifatparvar, mutafakkiri barjastai khalqi tojik Ahmadi Donish (1827—97), ki se marotiba ba Rossiya safar kardaast dar asari khud «Navodir-ul- vaqoe» qafomonii iqtisodi va madanii imoratii Bukhororo tanqid karda, zarurati nazdikshai va dustii khalqhoi Bukhoro va Rossiyaro tashviq menamud. Mehnatkashoni Osiyoi Miyona az yak taraf az madaniyati demok­ratii khalqi rus khabardor meshudand, az tarafi digar ba muborizai revolyutsionii proletariati rus hamrayi mekardand.

Mehnatkashoni Osiyoi Miyona va rus dar simoi hukumati podshohi dushmani yagonai khudro medidand. Makhsusan korgaroni mahallie, ki bo korgaroni rus kor mekardand dar harakati revolyutsionii proletariati rus faolona ishtirok doshtand. Ba in baromadhoi korgaron dar rohi ohan Zakaspiy. Quqand va Samarkand, ki solhoi 90 ba vujud omada bud, misol shuda metavonad. Dar solhoi 1903—05 dar yak qator shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona krujokhoi sotsial-demokrat ba vujud omadand, ki dar onho revolyutsi­oneroni mahalli niz faolona ishtirok mekardand. Dar solhoi 1905—07 Osiyoi Miyonaro ham harakati revolyutsioni faro girift, ki on qismi tarkibii Revoltsiyai 1905—07 rus bud.

Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sotsialistii Oktyabr dar tarikhi khalqhoi Rossiya davrai nav kushod. Onho mahz ba sharofati hamin revolyutsiya az zulmi milli va mustamlikavi ozod shudand. Mehnatkashoni Osiyoi Miyona bo kumaki proletariati rus az noyabri 1917 to marti 1918 dar kishvari Turkiston va mahalhoi rusnishini Bukhoroyu Kheva Hokimiyati Sovetiro tashkil namudand. 30 apreli 1918 Respublikai Avtonomii Sovetii Sotsialistii Turkiston tashkil shud. 2 fevrali 1920 dar Kheva, 2 sentyabri 1920 dar Bukhoro revolyutsiyai khalqi galaba kard. Dar natiqa Respublikai Khalqii Sove­tii Khorazm (30 apreli 1920) va Res­publikai Khalqii Sovetii Bukhoro (8 oktyabr 1920) tashkil shudand.

Solhoi 1923 Respublikai Khalqii Sotsialistii Kheva va 1924 Respublikai Khalqii Sotsialistii Bukhoro ba respublikahoi sotsialisti tabdil yoftand. Aksari kulli aholii Osiyoi Miyonaro dehqononi kamzamin va bezamin tash­kil medodand. Binobar in solhoi 20 dar Osiyoi Miyona islohoti zaminu ob guzaronida shud.

Soli 1924 taqsimoti milliyu davlatii respublikahoi Osiyoi Miyona  guzaronida shud, ki dar natijai on Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Uzbekiston (1924), Respublikai So­vetii Sotsialistii Turkmaniston (1924), Respublikai Sovetii Sotsia­listii Tojikiston (1929; az soli 1924 Respublikai avtonomi) va Respub­likai Sovetii Sotsialistii Qirgiziston (1936, az 1924 viloyati Qaroqirgiz, az 1926 Respublikai avtonomi) tashkil yoftand. Khalqhok Osiyoi Miyona badi industriyakunoni,  kollektivonidani khojagii qishloqi va revolyutsiyai madani davrai kapitalizmro az cap naguzaronida, az feodalizm bevosita ba sotsializm guzashtand va holo yakjoya bo digar khalqhoi vatanamon dar oilai yagona bahri sokhtmoni jamiyati kommunisti mehnat mekunand.

Adabiyot: Vladimir Ilich Lenin o Sredney Aziya v Kazakhstane, Tashkent, 1900; Narodi Sred­ney Azii i Kazakhstana, tom1—2, Moskva, 1902—03; Masson V. M.. Srednyaya Azin i Drevniy Vostok, Moskva— Leningrad, 1904; X a l f i n N. A., Prisoedinenie Sredney Azii k Rossii (00—90-e gg. XIX v.), Moskva, 1905; Gafurov B. G., Tadjiki. Drevneyshaya, drevnyaya i srednevekovaya istoriya, Moskva, 1972; K sosializmu, minuya kapitalizm. Istoricheskiy opit KPSS po sosialisti­cheskomu stroitelstvu a Sredney Azii i . Kazakhstane v 1917—1937 gg., Moskva, 1974; Torjestvo leninskikh idey proletarsko­go internasionaliama. Na materialakh respublik Sredney Azii i Kazakhstana 1917—1972 gg.. Moskva, 1974; Negmatov N.. Gosudarstvo Samanidov, Dushanbe, 1978.

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SAGIRDAShT, dehaest dar rayoni Qalaikhumi Viloyati Avtonomii Badakhshoni Kuhi, markazi Soveti qishloqi Sagirdasht. Territoriyai sovkhozi …