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Orientasiya

Orientasiya (fransavi orientati­on — samt ba sharq, az lotini oriens — sharq), tamimi mafhumi samti khati rostro ba figurahoi geometrii nisbatan murakkab guyand.

Orientasiya dar khati rost. Nuqta az rui khati rost dar du samti muqobil harakat karda metavonad. Masalan, az rui khati rosti go­rizontalii AV (rasmi 1) ham az rost ba chap va ham az chap ba rost harakat kardani nuqta mumkin ast. Khati roste, ki dar on samti muayyan nishon doda meshavad, khati rosti orientironidashuda nom dorad.

Orientasiya dar khatikaj. Har yak khati kajro ba monandi Orientasiyai khati rost ham muqobili harakati aqrabaki soat va ham muvofiqi harakati on orientironidan mumkin ast (rasmi 2).

Orientasiya dar hamvori. Biguzor yagon qismi hamvori bo khati kaji sarbastai oddi mahdud boshad. In khati kajro bo du usul orientironidan mumkin ast. Hangomi orientironii khati kaj qismi bo in khati kaj mahdudshudai hamvori niz orientironida meshavad. Agar hangomi du khati kajro az rui samti nishondodashuda guzashtan qismhoi bo in khathoi kaj mahdudshudai ham­vori dar yak taraf voqe boshand, in du khati kaj yak khel orientironidashuda nom dorand.

Masalan, dar rasmi 2 va 4 khathoi kaj yak khel, khati kaji rasmi 3 boshad, muqobili onho orientironida shudaast. Hamvori yakjoya bo khathoi kaji orientironidashudaash hamvorii orientironidashuda nomida meshavad. Agar dar hamvori tirhoi koordinataho Okh va Oy bo samti muayyani musbat intikhob shu­da boshand, ba in holat chunin Orientasiyai hamvori muvofiq meoyad, ki dar on davrai markazash ibtidoi koordinataho buda dar samti az samti musbati tiri Okh ba samti musbati tiri .

Ou giriftashuda orientironida shu­da ast. Macalan, sistemahoi koordinatahoi dar rasmi 5 va 6 nishondodashuda hamon yak Orientasiyai hamvoriro nishon medihand. Sistemai koordinatahoi rasmi 7 boshad, baraks orientironida shudaast.

Orientasiyam s a t h. Orientasiyai sathi dilkhoh ham ba monandi Orientasiyai hamvori muayyan karda meshavad. Du porai sath hamon vaqt yak khel orientironidashuda nomida meshavand, ki hangomi az rui samti dodashuda gu- zashtani khathoi kaji in porahoi sathro mahdudkunanda porahoisath dar yak taraf voqe gardand. Macalan, sathi kubhoi rasmhoi 8 va 9 yak khel, ammo sathi rasmi 10 baraksi onho orientironida shudaand. Na hamai sathho orientironidashavanda mebo­shand.

Orientasiyai fazo. Agar tirhoi koordinatahoi Okh, Ou, Okh bo samthoi muayyani musbat intikhob shuda boshand, Orientasiyai O fazo chunin mu­ayyan karda meshavad: avval yagon tetraedra OAVS, ki yake az qullahoyash dar ibtidoi koordinata O va qullahoi digarash dar shuohoi mus­bati tirhoi koordinata A, V; S joy giriftaand, muoina karda meshavad (rasmhoi 11, 12); sekunjai AVS, ki dar sathi in tetraedr mekhobad, bo tartibi AVS (yane avval az tiri Okh ba tiri Ou va bad ba tiri Okh) orientironida meshavad; hamin tavr Orientasiyai sathi tetraedr va az in ru Orientasiyai tamomi fazo muayyan karda meshavad. Mafhumi «Orientasiya»-ro baroi fazohoi bisyorchena niz umumiyat dodan mumkin ast.

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