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Ordeni tevton

Ordeni tevton, Ordeni nemis, Ordeni salibdoron, tashkiloti nemisii dinii katoli­ki va risarist, ki asrhoi 13—15 dar Evropai Sharqi tajovuzi feodaliro ba amal mebarovard. Ordeni tevton okhiri asri 12 dar Falastin dar davrai Yurishhoi salibdoron tasis yofta, soli 1198 az tarafi papa Innokenti III ba rasmiyat darovarda shud. Ordeni tevton  dar Germaniya va Evropai Janubi sohibi mulkhoi ziyod bud.

Soli 1230 ba zabti sarzamini prusho cap karda, okhiri asri 13 hokimi purrai on gardid. Dar hududi Prussiyai Sharqi va qismi Litva hokimiyati khudro poydor gardonda, Pomoriyai Polsha va shahri Gdanskro zeri dast kard va dar kishvarhoi istilokardaash davlati feodali tashkil namud. Ordeni tevtonro quvvahoi muttahidai litvoniho, polyakho, rusho va chekhho dar muhoribai Gryunvald (1410) torumor kardand. Ordeni tevton muvofiqi sulhnomai Torun (1466) khudro vassali Polsha shumorida, yak qismi zamini onro bargardonid. Prussiyai Sharqi, ki dar ikhtiyori Ordeni tevton  bud, soli 1525 ba gersogii Prussiya tabdil doda shud.

Ordeni fransiskho, tashkiloti rohiboni katoliki qashshoq ast, ki solhoi 1207—09 Fransiska Assizoni dar Italiya tashkil kard.

Soli 1228 papai Rim nizomnomai ordenro tasdiq namuda, faoliyati onro zeri nazorat girift. Bo tasisi Ordeni fransiskho ba tashkili ordenhoi qashsho- qon ibtido guzoshta shud. Ahdi or­den dar tuli asrho yordamchii faoli kalisoi katoliki b ud. Dar davrai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Fransiya, Revlyutsiyai Is­paniya (1834—43) va digar revolyutsiyahoi burjuazii asri 19-y Evropa Ordeni fransiskho taqib shudand.

Dar okhiri asri 19 avval dar Ispaniya, bad dar Fransiya ordenho barqaror karda shudand. Holo Ordeni fransiskho dar mamlakathoi Afrika va Osiyo targibotchii dini katolikist. Ordeni fransiskho bo shokhahoyash dar Italiya, Ispaniya, Fransiya, Respublikai Federativii Germaniya, Shtathoi Muttahidai Amriko, Kanada, Turkiya, Braziliya, Paragvay va mamlakathoi digar qarib 40 000 (1975) azo dorad.

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