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Okulyar

Okulyar (lot. oculus — chashm), qismi ba chashmi mushohid nigarondashudai sistemai optikist (teles­kop, durbin, mikroskop va gayra); baroi mushohidai vizualli tasvirhoi haqiqie, ki dar sistemahoi optikii obektiv (masalan, prizma, kollimator) hosil meshavand, khizmat mekunad.

Avvalin bor Okulyarro G. Galiley (1609) dar gulbai binish istifoda burdaast, ki linzai on manfi (parokandakunanda) bud. Azbaski okulyarhoi Galiley predmethoro khele khurd kar­da nishon (medihand, onho baroi mushohidahoi astronomi ba kor nameoyand. Dar miyonahoi asri 17 olimi niderland X. Gyuygens va okhiri asri 18 oli­mi anglis J. Ramsden Okulyari musbat (jamkunanda) ikhtiro kardand, ki to hol istifoda meshavand.

In Okulyarho az 2 linzai hamvori barjasta iboratand. Chunin Okulyarro bo obektiv yakjoya karda, tasviri yagon chizro dar on didan mumkii ast. Az okhiri asri 19 ba tufayli taraqqiyoti optikai harbi dar durbin, periskop va gayra Okulyarhoi makhsusi mukammal isti­foda meshavand.

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