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Okrugi Avtonomii Chukot

Okrugi Avtonomii Chukot, dar hayati viloyati Magadani RSFSR. Dar Shimoli Sharqi SSSR voqe ast. 10 dekabri 1930 tashkil shudaast. Okrugi avtonomii Chukot nimjazirai Chukotro, ki ba on qismi materik va jazirahoi Vrangel, Ayon, Arakamchechen, Ratmanov va gayra dokhil meshavand, darbar megirad. Onro bahrhoi Sibiri Sharqi, Chukot va Be­ring ihota kardaand. Masohatash 737 hazor kilometr2. Aholiash 139 hazor nafar (1979). Okrug 8 rayoni mamuri, 2 shahr va 18 posyolkai tipi shahr dorad. Markazash shahri Anadir.

            Tabiat. Sohilhoi bahrhoi Sibiri Sharqi va Chukot nachandon kaju ki- leband. Khaliji Chaun khaliji kalonta­rini okrug ast. Bahri Bering fiordhoi qulay va chuqur (khalijakhoi Providenie, Glubokaya va gayra), inchunin khalijhoi kalon (Lavrentiy, Mechigmen, Anadir va gayra) dorad. Pahnkuh va kuhhoi ziyod mavjudand.

Dar qismi markazii okrug pastii botloqzori Anadir voqe ast. Dar qismi shimoli on qatorkuhi Pekulney (nuqtai balandtarinash 1381 metr), kuhi Chukot (nuqtai balandtarinash 1843 metr) va dar Shimoli Garb pastii Anadir pahnkuhi Anadir joygir ast. Dar garbi on qatorkuhi Anyuy payvast shu­daast (nuqtai balandtarinash 1735 metr). Dar qismi janubu-garbii okrug do­manahoi pahnkuhi Yukagir joy dorand (balandiash 500—700 metr). Dar Shimol qad-qadi sohili bahr pastihoi Chaun va Vankarem hastand. Sarvathoi zerizaminiash: qalagi, simob, angishtsang, angishti bur, gaz va gayra meboshand.

Iqlimash qahratun, dar sohilho khunuk va dar nokhiyahoi dokhili kontinentii shadid. Zimis- tonash 8—9 moh davom mekunad. Harorati miyonai yanvar 38—55° Selsiya. Shamol hoi sakht mevazand. Tobistonash kutohu salqin va serboron ast. Harorati miyonai iyul dar Shimol 5—8° Selsiya, dar pastii Anadir 13—14° Selsiya. Borishoti solona 200—500 milimetr. Davrai nash­vi nabotot 75—101 ruz. Hama joro yakhbandii bisyorsola faro giriftaast. Daryoho ba havzai uqyonushoi yakhbastai Shimoli va Orom mansuband.

Daryohoi kalon: Anadir (shokhobhoyash Belaya, Mayn, Tanyurer), Koli­ma. Kulhoi kalon: Krasnoe, Elgi- gitkhin, Pekulney. Khoki Okrugi avtonomii Chukot asosan kuhiyu tundravi meboshad. Dar pastiho glei, gleiyu botloqi, torfiyu gley, khoki sohili daryoho va jangalhoi sirak khokistariyu gleist. Vodii daryohoe, ki khoki allyuviali va torfiyu khokistari dorand, baroi kisht istifoda mesha­vad.

Olami nabototash asosan tundravist. Gulsangu ushnazorho charogohhoi gavazho meboshand. Dar havzai daryoi Anadir safedor, tus va nastara­nu qaraqot, tamashk va gayra meruyad. Olami hayvonot:  rubohi shimoli, ruboh, gurg, sanjob, sagobi, zargush, khirsi bur va safed, gavazni shimo­li, kallamushi mushkin va gayra. Az parrandaho kabki safedu tundravi, murgobi, goz, qu, gaga va gayra vomekhurand. Bahrho az mohi (keta, gorbu­sha, luchmohi) va hayvonhoi bahri (morj, nerpa, kiti ashhabi) boyand.

Aholi. Aholii Okrugi avtonomii Chukot asosan az chukchiho, eskimosho, evenkho, yukagirho va rusho, ukrainho, belorusho, totorho va digar iborat ast. Zi- chii aholi dar 1 kilometr2 0,2 nafar. Aholi beshtar dar sohili bahrho va vodii daryoho zindagi mekunad.

Malumoti tarikhi. Odamon dar territoriyai hozirai Okrugi avtonomii Chukot hanuz dar dav­rai paleolit zindagi mekardand. Ajdodi eskimosho, ki bo shikoru mohidori mashgul budand, garpun va zavraq ikhtiro karda, kit, morj va nerparo shikor mekardand. Dar okhiri asri 1 milod ajdodi chukchihoyu koryakho gavaznro rom karda, bo parvarishi on mashgul shudand. Dar asri 17 Chukot ba hayati davlati Rus hamroh kar­da shud.

Dar Anadir mahallahoi rusho paydo shudand. Az miyonai asri 19 va badtar sanoatchiyonu savdogaroni amerikoi aholii tahjoiro go­rat mekardand. Chukchiho va digar khalqhoi okrug dar ibtidoi asri 20 sokhti avlodiro az cap meguzarondand. Khojagii onho khususiyati patriarkhali dosht. Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sotsialistii Oktyabr aholii territoriyai hozirai Okrugi avtonomii Chukot Okrugi avtonomii Chukotro az zulmi milli va istismor ozod namud. Dar posyolkai Anadir 16 noyabri 1919 Komiteti revolyusionii Chukot tashkil shud. Shirkati amerikoi «Svenson» az huquqi mohigiri mahrum shud.

Baroi behtar namudani savdo choraho andeshida shudand. Ammo boqimondai askaroni Kolchak 31 yanvar 1920 tabadduloti ziddi revolyutsioni guzaronda, azoyoni Komiteti revolyutsioniro qatl namudand. Gvar­diyai Surkh kolchakchiyonro torumor va Hokimiyati Sovetiro barqaror karda Komijroiyai uezdi Anadir intikhob gardid, ki 6 yanvar 1921 ba Komiteti khalqii revolyutsioni tabdil doda shud.

Tudai gvardiyachiyoni safedi Birich-Bochkaryov oktyabr 1921 az Vladi­vostok ba sohilhoi Okhotsk va Kam­chatka dokhil shudand. Otryadhoi Ar­miyai Surkh bo rohbarii G. I. Chuba­rov apreli 1923 quvvahoi asosii gvardiyachiyoni safedro torumor kardand. 2—5 avgust Sezdi I namoyandagoni Ko­miteti revolyutsionii dehot va vo­losti Anadir tasis yoft. Soli 1923 dar Uelen Soveti rayonii Chukot tashkil gardid va dar cap to sari nimjazirai Chukot Hokimiyati Soveti barpo karda shud. Dar solhoi panjsolakhoi pesh az jang kollektivonii khojagii qishloq va saydu shikor ogoz yoft.

Gavaznparvari va shikori hayvonhoi bahri rivoj yoft. Chukchiho va eskimosho sohibi alifbo gardida, besavodi asosan barham doda shud. Intelligensiyai milli tashakkul yoft. 10 dekabri 1970 Okrugi Millii Chukot (az soli 1977 Okrugi avtonomii Chukot) tashkil shud, ki on tamomi nohiyahoi Ana­dir va Chukoti Sharqi Dur va inchunin yak qismi RASS YOqutro dar bar megirift. Sokinoni Chukot dar solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani dar muborizai ziddi fashistoni goratgari nemis faolona ishtirok kar­dand. Okrugi avtonomii Chukot  solhoi badi jang dar sokhtmoni sotsialisti ba muvaffaqiyathoi kalon noil gardid Sanoati istikhroji tillo, metallhoi ranga, sokhtmoni rohho bo surat taraqqi kardand. Okrugi avtonomii Chukot  bo ordeni Bayraqi

Surkhi Mediat (1970), ordeni Dustin Khalqho (1972) mukofotonida shudaast.

Khojagi. Sanoati istikhroji madan dar iqtisodiyoti Okrugi avtonomii Chukot joi asosiro megirad, ki on az korkhonahoi istikhroji metallhoi ranga, qalagi (Valkumsi), simob (Pla­mennoe) va angishtsang (Bering, Anadir) iborat ast. Stansiyai elektrii atomii Bilibino, TES-i Chaun va GRES-i Egvekinot amal mekunand. Sanoati saydu korkardi mohi, istehsoli masolehi binokori (Ana­dir, Pevek, Bilibino) va khurokvori khele pesh raft.

Okrug soli 1978 28 sovkhozho dosht. Sohahoi asosii khojagii on gavaznpar- vari buda, shumorai on soli 1977 ba 565 hazor cap rasid. Sohai ananavii khojagii aholii tahjoi— mohigiri, shikori hayvonhoi muinador va bahri. Kasbi asosii aholi shikori rubohi shimoli, nerpavu morj meboshad. Parvarishi chorvoi shirdeh, parranda va khukparvari sohai navi khojagii Okrugi avtonomii Chukot meboshad.

Okrugi avtonomii Chukot  soli 1978 (ba hisobi hazor cap) 2,0 gov, 3,8 khuk dosht. Dar fermahoi makhsus rubohi shimoli parvarish karda meshavad. Naqliyoti asosi — bahry va havoi. Bandarho: Levek, Providenie, Anadir, Egvekinot va gayra. Rohhoi mu-imi moshingard: Pevekvek — Kras­noarmeyskiy — Komsomolskiy, Eg- veknnot — Iultin, Zelyoniy Mis — Bilibino va g. D-hoi Anadir, Ve­likaya va g. kshptigardand.

Sokhtmoni madani. To Revolyutsiyai Ok­tyabr chukchiho tamoman besavod bu- dand. Soli tahsili 1914/15 dar Okrugi avtonomii Chukot   1 maktabi ibtidoi bud, ki 40 khonanda dosht. Maktabi miyona nadosht.

Soli tahsili 1978/79 dar 36 makta­bi malumoti umumi 27,6 hazor talaba, dar 1 omuzishgohi kasbhoi tekh­niki 310 talaba, dar omuzishgohi pedagogi 184 khonanda mekhond. Dar okrug soli 1978 94 kitobkhonai ommavi, muzei kishvarshinosi, 111 klub, 179 dastgohi filmnishondihi bud. Soli 1979. Okrug 570 dukhtur, 1656 korkuvoni miyonai tibbi va dar bemorkhonaho 2200 kat dosht.

Gazetahoi okrugii «Sovetken Chu­kotka» («Chukotkai Soveti», az soli 1953, ba zaboni chukchi) va «Sovetskaya Chu­kotka» (az soli 1933) nashr meshavand. Barnomahoi radio ba zaboni chukchi va rusi shunavonida meshavavd. Aholi ba vositai stansiyai «Orbita» barnomahoi televizioni Markaziro tamosho mekunad.

Adabiyot. Chukchiho to Revolbtsiyai Kabiri Sotsialistii Oktyabr adabiyoti khatti nadoshtand. Shaklhoi gunoguni adabiyoti dahonaki pahn shuda budu bas. Si- yosati Hokimiyati Soveti doir ba madaniyat, tartib dodani alifboi chukchiho (1931) va pahnshavii zabo­ni rusi baroi ba vujud omadani adabiyoti chukchiho zamina guzoshtand.

Klassikoni rus va ejodiyoti navisandagoni soveti V. G. Tan-Bogoraz, T. 3. Syomushkin, N. E. Shundik va digar ba tashakkuli adabiyoti chukchi­ho tasir rasondand. Navisandai nakhustini chukot Tinetegin (F. Tinetev, 1920—1940) kitobi «Afsonahoi chauchu» (1940, ba zaboni chukchi va rusi)-ro tartib dod. Solhoi 1950—60 nasrnavison Yu. S. Ritkheu (tavallud 1930), V. Yatirgin (tavallud 1919) va shoiron V. G. Keulkut (1929— 63), A. A. Kimitval (tavallud 1938), V. Timnetuvge (1935—1965), M. V. Valgirgin (tavallud 1939), V. Tineskin (tavallud 1945) va digar ba maydon omadand. Navisanda Yu. S. Ritkheu dar SSSR va khorija mashhur ast.

Muallif dar majmuai hikoyahoi «Rivoyati Chukot» (1956), asari sejildai «Ayyomi obshavii barf» (1958), romanhoi «Qiravi ostona» (1970), «Barfi safed» (1975) va digar asarhoi khudro ba tarikhi zindagii khalqi Chukot va navsozii hayoti ijtimoii on bakhshidaast. Tasiri folklor dar ada­biyoti Chukot kalon ast. Asarhoi navisandagoni Chukot ba zaboni khalqhoi SSSR va ba zaboni chukchi niz asarhoi navisandagoni khalqhoi Ittifoqi Soveti tarjuma meshavand.

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SAYaN (kuhhoi Sayan), kishvari kuhiest, ki dar qismhoi janubii kishvari Krasnoyarsk va viloyati Irkutsk, qismi …