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Ohan

Ohan (lotini Ferrum), Fe, elementi khimiyavii guruhi VIII sistemai davrii Mendeleev, raqami at. 26, massan at. 55,647. Q.-i tabii az 4 izoto­pi sobit 54Ge (5,84%), **Ge (91,68%), 67Ge (2,17%) va 58Ge (0,31%) iborat ast. Az izotophoi suniash 55Ge va Ge beshtar ustuvor va ahamiyatnokand. Ohan ba insoniyat az qadimulayyom (nigared Asri ohan) injonib malum ast. 4,65% massai qishri Zamin az Ohan iborat buda, khudi Ohan dar tabiat dar holati ozod va magmavi, gidrotermali va gipergeni duchor meshavad. Ohan qarib 300 minerali oksidi, sulfidi, silikati, karbonati, fosfata va gayra hosil menamoyad.

Konhoi Ohan dar SSSR dar havzai Kri­voy Rog, Belgorod, Angaro-Pitsk, Angaro-Ilimsk, kuhhoi Magnitniy, Visokiy va Blagodat, Sokolov­skoe, Sarbaysk va gayra, dar Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii  Tojikiston dar qatorkuhhoi Qurama (koni Chohqadambuloq) va Alichuri Janubi mavjud ast. Ohani kholis metalli nuqrarangi chandir meboshad. Zichiash 7874 kilogram/metr3, t gudozish 1539° S, t jushish 2880°Selsiya ast. Valentash tagyiryobanda buda, payvasthoi 2 va 3 valentaash besh­tar ustuvorand. Bo oksigen GeO, Ge203, Gez04 hosil mekunad. Dar harorati muqarrari, dar havoi namnok

  • qabati tunuki zang (Ge202 nHjO) pushida meshavad. Ohan dar havoi khushk (dar harorati az 200° Selsiya ziyod) qabati tu­nuki oksid hosil menamoyad. Hango- mi dar bugi ob garm kardan Ge204 (dar harorati qarib 570° Selsiya) yo GeO (dar harorati az 570°Selsiya baland) hosil karda, gidrogen khorij menamoyad. Gidroksidi Ohan Ge(ON)2 dar vaqti ba mahluli obii namakhoi Ge++ tasir kardani ishqor yo ammiak dar namudi takshoni safed hosil meshavad. Ge(ON)2 dar havoi kushod avval ; sabz, bad siyoh shuda, dar okhir ba gidroksidi surkhi bur Fe (ON)z tabdil meyobad. FeO khosiyati asosi va Fe203 khosiyati amfoteri dorad. Ohan ba gallogenhoyu gallogenidhoi gid­rogen bo osoni ba reaksiya dokhil shuda namak (masalan GeS12, GeS va gayra) va bo S, S, N, Si, R payvast shuda, sulfidho (FeS, FeS2), karbidho (Ge3S, Ge*S), nitridho jFe4N, Fe2N), silisidho (FeeSi), fosfidho (GvagR) va gayra hosil menamoyad. Ohan az tasiri HN03-n konsentronida pardai muhofizi oksid hosil namuda, passiv megardad, ammo dar HNOs-i serob hal shuda, kislotaro to NH2N20 va N2 barqaror mekunad. Ioni Ge2+ noustuvor buda. dar havo oksid mesha­vad va ba Ge3+tabdil meyobad. Ohan yak qator payvasthoi kompleksi hosil menamoyad. Ohani kholisro dar miqdori kam az elektrodiai mahluli namak yo bo gidrogen barqaror kardani oksidhoyash hosil mekunand. Oid ba usulhoi sanoatii istehsoli Ohan nigared masalan Istehsoloti marteni, istehsoloti domnavi. Ohanro asosan dar namudi khulahoi gunogun (chuyan, pulod va gayra) istifoda mebarand. Beshtar az 95%’ mahsuloti metallii istemolshavanda Ohan va khulahoi on ast.

Ohan dar organizmi hayvonot va rastaniho (takhminan 0,02%) yake az elementhoi biogenii zarur buda, dar bisyor prosesshoi hayoti roli muhim mebozad. Vay ba organizm aso­san ba vositai khurok (jigar, gusht, tukhm, non, lablabu va gayra) dokhil shu­da, dar jigar va talkha zakhira me­shavad. Dar organizm Ohan baroi sintezi gemoglobin, mioglobiya, boftahoi sitokhromi va digar fermenthoi ohandor sarf meshavad.

Dar tib preparathoi Ohandor (laktati ohan, feramid, gemostimulin va gayra)-ro baroi muolijai bemorihoe, ki az norasoii Ohan ba vujud meoyand, inchunin baze bemorihoi siroyati istifoda mebarand. Izotophoi Ohan (b2Ge, 5bGe va 59Ge) hangomi tadqiqoti tibbiyu bi­ologi va tashkhisi bemorihoi khun (anemiya, leykoz, polipsitemiya va gayra) chun indikator istifoda meshavand. Nigared niz Ohangari.

Adabiyot.: Obshaya metallurgiya, Moskva 1967; Nekrasov B. V., Osnovi obshey khi­mii, tom 3, Moskva, 1970.

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