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Ojoriston

Ojoriston, Respublikai Avtonomii Sovetii Sotsia­list i (Acharis Avtonomiuri Sabchota Sosialisturi Respublika). Dar hayati Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii  Gurjiston 16 iyuli 1921 tash- kil shudaast. Masohat 3,0 hazor kilometr5. Aholiash 367 hazor nafar (1982). Ojoriston 5 rayon, 2 shahr, 6 posyolkai tipi shahr dorad. Poytakhtash shahri Batumi.

            Sokhti davlati. Respublikai Avtonomii Sovetii Sotsialistii Ojoriston davlati sotsialistii umumikhalqi buda, konstitusiyam joriash dar Sessi­yai 9-umi gayrinavbatii Soveti Olii. Respublikai Avtonomii Sovetii Sotsialistii Ojoriston 26 may 1978 qabul shu­daast. Organi olii hokimiyati dav­lati — Soveti Olii  Respublikai Avtonomii Sovetii Sotsialistii Ojoriston va Prezidiumi on Soveti Olii . Respublikai Avtonomii Sovetii Sotsialistii Ojoriston hukumat — Soveti Vazironro tashkil mekunad.

Organi hokimiyatn davlatii mahalli — Soveti deputathoi khalqii shahri, rayoni va qishloq. Sistemai sudi: Sudi Olii  Respublikai Avtonomii Sovetii Sotsialistii Ojoriston va sudhoi khalqii rayoni.

            Tabiat. Ojoriston dar qismi janubi garbii Zakavkaziya joy girifta, onro dar Garb bahri Siyoh ihota kardaast. Sohilho chandon kaju kileb nestand. Qismi ziyodi territoriyai Ojoristonro qatorkuhu domanakuhi Kavkazi Khurd faro giriftaast. Qad-qadi sohil davomi pastii Kol­hida tul kashidaast. Qatorkuhi Meskhet qismi sohilii Ojoristonro az qismi kuhiash judo mekunad.

Iqlimi pastii sohil va domanakuh muloim, sernami subtropiki, dar kuhiston — sernam, mutadil va khunuk. Harorati miyonai yanvar dar sohil az 4 to 6° Selsiya, dar kuhiston az 2 to —2? Selsiya; iyul 20—23° Selsiya va 20— 16° Selsiya Dar Ojoriston borongari bisyor ast. Borishoti solona 2400—2800 millimetr, dar kukhkhoi qismi sharqi 1400—1800 millimetr, dar vodihoi dokhili Ojoriston 1000—1400 millimetr. Khunuki az —4°, —6° Selsiya past na- mefuroyad.

Daryohoi Ojoriston ba khavzai bahri Siyoh mansuband. Kalontarin daryo Chorokh va shokhobi on Ojorisskali. Khoki pastiho allyuviali va botloqi, domanakuhi mintaqai sohil — surkhkhok. Dar kuhho va vodihoi dokhili Ojoriston khokhoi buri dvigali, chimtoli va chimtoliyu torfii kuhiyu margzori dida meshavad. Qarib 50% territoriyai Ojoristonro jangal faro giriftaast. Dar qismi shimoli garbii Ojoriston darakhtoni pahnbarg, dar qismi sharqii Ojoriston da­rakhtoni suzanbarg meruyand.

Dar pastii sohil va domanai kuhho ziroathoi subtropik va tekhniki parvarish karda meshavand. Dar vodii Ojorisskali maydonhoi rastanihoi bisyorsola voqeand. Dar balandii 1800 metr buttazorho va az on balandtar margzorhoi subalpi va alpi joy giriftaand. Dar jangalhoi kuhi khirs, guroz, silovsin va dar domanakukh shagol hast; dar daryoho mohihoi golavl, golyan, gulmohi, ozodmohi va gayra mavjudand. Ojoriston mamnugodhoi Siskari va Kintrishi dorad.

            Aholi. Asosan gurjiho, inchunin rusho, armaniho, ukrainho, yunoniho, yahudiyon, abkhozho va digar zindagoni mekunand. Zichii miyovai aholi dar 1 kilometr* 117″ nafar (1978). Aho­lii mintajai sohil khele zich meboshad. Shahrho: Batumi, Kobuleti.

            Ocherki tarikhi. Ojoriston qismi qadimtarini Gurjiston buda, tarikhi on bo tarikhi Gurjiston bevosita aloqamand ast. Ojoriston dar sarchashmahoi gurjiyu Vizantii asri 10 va az in ham peshtar dar mahazhoi armani zikr shudaast. Dar asrhoi 6—4 to milod Ojoriston dar hayati podshohii Kolkhida va bad dar hayati podshohii Iberiya bud. Dar asri 4 to milod Ojoriston ba davlati gurdiho — Lazika hamrod karda shud. Dar asrhoi 11—13 Ojoriston az tokhtutozhoi saljuqiyon va chingiziyon baso zarar did. Turkiya dar niman duyumi asri 16 qismi janubi Ojoristonro to daryoi Chorokh zabt kard, dar asrhoi 17—18 boshad, feodalhoi turk tamomi territoriyai Ojoristonro sohib shudand.

Dar natidai Jangi Rossiyayu Turkiya (1877—78) Batumi, Kars, Ardagan ba Rossiya hamroh karda shudand. Ojoriston bo Gurjiston muttahid gardid. Solhoi 80 sanoat dar Ojoriston ru ba taraqqy nihod.

Soli 1893 navisandai inqilobii gurji E. F. Ninoshvili dar Batumi nakhustin krujoki korgariro tashkil kard, ki dar zaminai on soli 1896 so- tsial-demokrathoi rus I. I. Luzin va G. Ya. Francheski avvalin krujo­ki marksistiro tasis namudand. Soli 1897 porchaho az «Manifesti Parti­yai Kommunistii Karl Marks va Fridrikh Engels ba zaboni gurji dar Batu­mi chop shud. 9 marti 1902 Komiteti RSDRP-i Batumi namoishi kaloni korgaronro tashkil kard. Dar okhiri noyabri 1905 dar Batumi shurishti yaroqnok ba amal omad. Shabi 15 apreli 1918 turkho Batumi, Akhalsikhe, Ardagan, inchunin yak qismi Guriyaro zabt kardand. Az dekabri 1918 to iyuli 1920 Ojoriston dar tasarrufi qushunhoi anglis bud. 11 marti 1921 qushunhoi Tur­kiya ba Batumi zada daromadand. 18 marti hamon sol mehatkashoni Ojoriston bo rohbarii Komiteti muvaqqatii revolyutsioni shahrro ozod karda, Hokimiyati Sovetiro barpo namu­dand. Diviziyai kavkazi 19 marti 1921 Batumiro ozod kard. 16 iyuli 1921 dar hayati Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii  Gurjiston  Respublikai Avtonomii Sovetii Sotsialistii Ojoriston tashkil yoft.

Dar solhoi panjsolahoi pesh az jang dar Ojoriston sanoati mutaraqqi va khojagii qishloqi sersoha ba vujud omad, besavodi barham doda shud. Dar solhoi badi jang iqtisodiyot va madaniyati  besh az pesh taraqqi karda, hajmi mahsuloti umumi soli 1968 nazar ba 1940 2,7 marotiba afzud. Dar Ojoriston ziyoda az 183 Qahramoni Mehnati Sotsialisti hast. Ojoriston bo ordenhoi Le­nin (1967) va Dustii Khalqho (1972) mukofotonida shudaast.

            Khojagii khalq. Ojoriston ba parvarishi ziroathoi sitrusi, choy, korkardi neft, moshinsozii makhsus va gayra mutobiq gardonda shudaast. Ojoriston kurorthoi ziyode dorad.

Sanoati Ojoriston asosan dar solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti ba vujud omadaast. Soli 1981 dar 0. 141,1 million kiloVatt/soat quvvai elektr (soli 1940 44 million kiloVatt/ soat bud) hosil karda shud. Dar Ojoriston zavodidi korkardi neft hast, ki on nefti Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Ozarboyjon va digar nohiyahoi SSCP-po sofkori mekunad. Ojoriston konhoi mis, polimetallho. gilhoi otashtobovar niz dorad. Moshinsozi (istehsoli masnuoti elektrotekh­niki, tajhizoti _ sanoati khurokvori) va kishtisozi (Batumi) taraqqi kardaast. Dar Ojoriston fabrikahoi choy (Kobuleti, Chakva, Ochkhamuri, Khusubani), zavodhoi vino (Batumi, Keda), konserv (Batumi) va gayra hastand. Inchunin sanoathoi charmu poyafzol, duzandagi, chubgari (Batumi) va istehsoli masolehi binokori (Batu­mi, Kobuleti, Chakva) taraqqi kardaand.

            Khojagii qishloq. Parvarishi ziroathoi sitrusi, choy, tung, bambuk, evkalipt dar khojagii qishloqi Ojoriston roli kalon mebozand. Bogdori va chorvodori niz taraqqi kardaast. Soli 1979 dar Ojoriston 165 kolkhoz va 20 sovkhoz bud. Ziroati sitru­si asosan dar mintaqai domanakuhu balandiho parvarish karda meshavad. Choyro asosan dar mintaqai sohili bahr parvarish mekunand. Bogdoriyu tokparvari dar tamomi ray­onhoi Ojoriston taraqqy kardaast. Dar nohiyahoi dokhilii Ojoriston tamoku, dar mintaqai sohili bahr sabzavot, dar rayonhoi kuhi boshad kartoshka mekorand.

Soli 1979 dar Ojoriston  (ba hisobi hazor cap) 115,6 gov, 15,9 buzu gusfand, 6,1 khuk bud. Az bahri Siyoh mohi sayd mekunand.

            Naqliyot. Az sohili Ojoriston rohi ohani elektronidashudai Samtredia — Ba­tumi, rohi moshingardi Batumi — Khulo — Akhalsikhe meguzarad. Batumi bandari kalontarini bahrii Ojoriston ast. Az Ochoriston mahsuloti neft, moshin, tajhizoti sanoati khurokvori, kofein, joy, ravgani tung, konserv, tamoku va gayra barovarda, ba Ojoriston gandum, gusht, mahsuloti shiri, qand, birinj, kar­toshka, sabzavot va gayra meorand.

            Nigahdorii tandurusti. Dar Ojoristoni torevolyutsioni hamagi 9 dukhtur va 1 kasalkhona bud. Soli 1979 dar Ojoriston 1027 dukhtur, ziyoda az 3 hazor kormandi do­roi malumoti miyonai tibbi, 52 kasalkhona (doroi 3,6 hazor kat.), 87 muassisai tabobati, 126 muassisai yorii tibbi bud. Kurorthoi sohili bahr: Batumi, Kobuleti, Sikhisdziri, Dimogai Sabz, Makhinjauri.

            Maorif va muassisahoi madani- marifati. To Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sotsialistii Ok­tyabr hamagi 7%’ aholi savod dosht. Soli tahsili 1921/22 dar Ojoriston faqat 38 maktabi ibtidoi budu bas. Dar solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti dar Ojoriston talimi umumii hatmi jori karda shud. Soli 1978 dar 110 muassisai tomaktabi ziyoda az 75,4 haor kudak tarbiya meyoft. Solhoi tahsili 1981/82 dar maktabhoi talimi umumi 77,4 hazor, dar omuzishgohhoi kasbhoi tekhniki 2,7 hazor, dar maktabhoi miyonai makhsus 3,3 hazor talaba, dar mak- tabhoi oli 2,1 hazor student mekhond.

Dar Batumi 2 muzey— Muzei davlatii Ojoriston va Muzei davlatii revolyutsiya (.1979), 228 kitobkhonai ommavi, teatri davlati, Khonai ejodiyoti khalq, 186 klub, 176 dastgohi kino hast.

            Muassisahoi ilmi. Dar Ojoriston 11 muassisai ilmi hast (1968): Instituti tadqiqoti ilmii batumii Akademiyai Fanhoi Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii  Gurjiston, filialhoi Instituti tadqiqoti ilmii umumiittifoqii fitopatolo­giya (Kobuleti), Instituti umumiittifoqii choy va ziroati subtropiki (Chakva), Instituti tadqiqoti ilmii sa­noati khurokvorii Gurjiston, Instituti tadqiqoti ilmii sanoati loku rang (Batumi), Bogi botanikii batumii Akademiyai Fanhoi Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii  Gurjiston va gayra.

Soli 1982 dar maktabhoi oli va instituti tadqiqoti ilmii Ojoriston 388 kormandi ilmi, az on jumla 14 doktor va 145 nomzadi ilm kor mekard.

            Matbuot radio va televizion. Dar Ojoriston 2 gazetai respublikavi «Sabcho Adjara» («Ojoristoni Soveti, az soli 1921, ba zaboni gurji) va «Sovetskaya Adjariya» (az soli 1921, ba zaboni rusi), inchunin jurnali adabi-badei va jamiyati-siyosii «Literaturuli Ad­jara» («Ojoristoni adabi», az soli 1958, ba zaboni gurji) nashr meshavand.

Radioi respublikavi barnomahoro ba zaboni gurji va rusi meshunavo- nad. Programmai televizioni Tbili­si va Moskva namoish doda, barnomahoi radioi markazi shunavonida meshavand.

            Adabiyot. Adabiyoti Ojoriston yak chuzi adabiyoti gurjist. Soli 1927 shubai ojorii Assosiasiyai navisandagoni Gurjiston tashkil yoft. Adibon M. Varshanidze, N. Gvarishvili, 3. Gorgiladze, D. Jakeli, P. Loriya, II. Ma- lazoniya, I. Pagava, Sh. Rrua, G. Salukvadze, A. Samsoniya, F. Khalvashi, A. Chkhaidze, A. Shervashidze va digar dar taraqqiyoti adabiyoti sovetii gurji sahmi kalon guzoshtaand.

            Memori va sanati tasviri. Dar Ojoriston yodgorihoi memorii davrai tofeodali (qalai Gonia), dimnai shahr — qalai yunonii Pyotr (bun- yodash asri 6), kharobai hammomho (dar Sikhisdairi) boqi mondaand. Qalai mazkur va pulhoi yakravoqai Makho, Makhunseti, Dandalo, Purtio va gayra ba davrai podshohoni gurji (asrhoi 10—13) mansuband. Okhiri asri 19 va ibtidoi asri 20 dar Ojoriston binokori avjgirift. Dar Batumi va atrofi on havliyu khonahoi istiqomati bo uslubi ek­lektika sokhta meshudand.

Dar solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti dar Batumi va shahrhoi kurorti (Kobu- leti, Makhinjauri, Sikhisdziri va gayra) binokori khele vusat yoft. Dar Batumi mekhmonkhonai «Inturist» (1939, memor A. V. Shusev), Teatri tobisto na (1948, memoron K. I. Javakhshivili, B. M. Kirakosyan), Teat­ri drama (1952, memor L. S. Tepliskiy), Muzei revolyutsiya (1955,memor K. I. Javakhishvili), kinote­atra «Tbilisi» (1964, memor N. Abashidze) sokhta shudand.

            Sanati tasviri dar Ojoriston asri 20 va badi barqaror shudani Hokimiyati Soveti (1921) hamatarafa inkishof yoft. Dar mavzui tarikhii revolyu­tsioni (III. G. Kholuashvili, N. N. Yakovenko) asarhoi barjasta ejod shuda, inchunin rasmhoi manzaravi (S. N. Artmeladze, Sh. A. Zamtaradze, X. D. Ivaishvili), portretho (Sh. G. Kholuashvili) ba vujud omadaand. Haykaltaroshi (T. P. Chanturia, M. A. Bolkvadae), grafika _ (G. A. Sechenyan, D. X. Imnaishvili, V. O. Seidishvili), sanati teatriyu oroishi (D. X. Imnaishvili, A. M. Filippov), sanati monumentali-oroishi (T. M. Jalaganiya), sanati oroishi-amali (Sh. I. Kvernadae, O. Chachua) niz rivoj yoftand. Khalqi Ojoriston az zamonhoi qadim bo kandakoriyu kashidaduzi mashgul ast.

            Musiqi. Surudi khalqii ojori yake az shevahoi sershumori musiqii khal- qii gurdji meboshad va bisyorovozavu murakkabsokht buda, az 3—4 qism iborat ast. Makhsusan surudkhoi vasfi mehnat “naduri”-i chorovoza mamul ast, ki onro hangomi kishtukor khori mardon (8—12 nafar) ijro mekunad. Asbobhoi musiqii khalqi: chiboni, chonguri (setor), doli (naqora), chinauri, salamuri, saz, kamoncha. Dar Batumi ansambli davlatii surud va radio ba nomi M. Kukhinidze, filarmoniya, maktabi musiqi hast.

            Teatr. Soli 1937 dar Batumi teatri ba nomi I. Chavchavadze kushoda shud.

In teatr chunin asarhoi barjasta: «Uriel Akosta»-i K. Gupkov (1941), «Rondashuda»-i V. Pshavela (1945), «Kikvidze»-i V. A. Daraseli (1951), «Vassa Jeleznova»-i M. Gorkiy (1953), «Gamlet» (1956) va «Otel­lo» (1959) U. Shekspirro bomuvaffaqiyat ba sahna guzoshtaast. Soli 1978 asari V. Shamba «U, khonum va Mo­sart» ba sahna guzoshta shud.

P (pe), harfi habdahumi alifboi hozirai tojikist, ki az alifboi ru- ci girifta shuda (1940), ovozi ham­sadoi labulabii zichi bejarangro ifoda mekunad va shakli navishti chopiash Pp, dastnavisash meboshad. Dar alifboi arabviasosi toji­ki (to 1930) pe nom doshta, ba shak­li        ifoda meshud. Dar alifboi lo­tiniasosi tojiki (1930—40) shakli chopiash Rr va dastnavisash bud. Hamsadoi P dar baze kalimaho ba f guzashtaast (guspand — gusfand); goho ba b meguzarad (asp—asb). Dar zaboni guftugui bazan ba joi kham­sadoi digar paydo meshavad (resmon— respon).

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MUGULON, dehaest dar Soveti qishloqi Pakhtakori payoni Vose, viloyati Kulob. Territoriyai kolkhozi ba nomi S. …