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Nitrogen

Nitrogen (az nitro… va…gem), N, elementa khimiyavii guruhi V sis­temai davrii Mendeleev, raqami at. 7, massai at. 14,0067. Nitrogeni tabii az 2 izotopi sobit: 4N (99,635%) va1,5N(0,365%) iborat ast. Az izotophoi radioaktiviash ,3N(T’/2 *= 10,08 daqiqa) beshtar ustuvor ast. Payvasthoi Nitrogen— selitra, kislotai nitrat, ammiak pesh az kashfi Nitrogeni ozod malum budand. Netrogenro soli 1772 D. Rezerfopd kashf namuda, ba on «gazi khafakunanda» nom dod. Soli 1787 A. La­vuaze moddai sodda budari Nitrogenro isbot kard va onro azot (az yunori azos — behayot) nomid. Soli 1790 J. A. Shaptal ba on nomi nitrogenro dod. Nitrogen yake az elemonthoi pahnshudatarini Zamin ast. Qismi ziyodi on (qarib 4 • 10″ tonna) dar atmosfera pahn shudaast. Nitrogeni ozod (N2) 78,09%-i hajm va 75,6 %-i massai ha- voro tashkil menamoyad. Khloridi am­moniy NH4C1 va nitrathoi gunogun payvasthoi asosii tabiii Nitrogen ba shu­mor meravand. Konhoi kalontarini selitra dar Chili, Osiyoi Miyona duchor meshavand.

Nitrogen yake az elementhoi muhimi hayoti buda, dar safedai hayvonotu odam 16—17% mavjud ast. Bay dar shakli payvast dar tarkibi neft (0,02—1,5%), angishtsang (1—2,5%), khok (0,1%), obi bahru uqyonusho niz mavjud ast. Nitrogen dar tabiat bo faoliyati mikroorga­nizmho — azotanduzho, nitroanduzho, denitroanduzho doimo dar gardish ast. Nitrogen elementi gazmonandi berangi bebuy va bemaza buda, az havo sabuktar ast. Zichiash 1250,6 kilogramm/metr* (dar O*Selsiya va 760 millimetr sutuni simobi), t gudozish 209,86° Selsiya, t jushish 195,8e Selsiya. Nitrogen dar ob kam (dar 0°S dar 1 m9 N20gramm) va dar baze karbogidridho ngz hal meshavad.

Nitrogeni ozod tanho bo metallhoi faol Li, Sa, Mg dar harorati na on qadar baland, bo elementhoi digar dar harorati balandu fishor va ishtiroki katalizator pay­vast meshavad. Nitrogen bo gidrogen ammi­ak, gidrazin (N2H4), diimid (N2H2), oktazon (NeHu) va gayra, bo oksigep oksidho (N2O, NO, N203, N02i N2Ob), bo metallho nitridho va gayra, hosil menamoyad. Nitrogenro dar laboratoriya az namakhoi kislotai nitrit (masalan NH^Oj) va dar sanoat az havoi moe hosil mekunand. Nitrogen va payvasthoi on baroi istehsoli nurihoi minerali, moddahoi tarkanda, sintezi ammiak, kislotai nitrat, hosil kardani harorati past (az Nitrogeni moe) va gayra istifoda meshavand. Nitrogeni moero dar zarfhoi pulodi (zarfi Dyu­ar) va Nitrogeni gazshaklro dar ballonho nigoh medorand va mekashonand.

Adabiyot: Khimiya i tekhnologiya svyazannogo azota. Moskva— Leningrad, 1934; Re mi G., Kurs ne­organicheskoy khimii, tom I, Moskva, 1863; Nek­rasov B. V., Osnovi obshey khimii, tom 1, Moskva» 1965.

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